BECOME AN AMATEUR RADIO OPERATOR

THE AMATEUR RADIO TECHNICIAN CLASS STUDY COURSE.

INTRODUCTION

 

Greetings and thank you for deciding to participate in these amateur radio lessons I hope you will find them interesting, informative and helpful. My name is Bill and my amateur radio call sign is WA6OHP.

Ham radio has been an exciting part of my life for 50 years. I want to express my appreciation for Mac K6BJV and Jim K6KRL for their help and mentoring so that I could get my license; I also want to acknowledge and Ed W6CC and Vern W6CGJ for proctoring the tests so I could get my early license. Mac, Jim, Ed, and Vern are now silent key but I refuse to let their legacy die by passing on to others what they have passed on to me.

During these 50 years I have helped many to get their amateur radio license by teaching ham radio classes, mentoring individuals, and working as a Volunteer Eliminator. I want to help as many as possible across the United States who would like to get their ham radio license. To accomplish this goal I developed these lessons and placed them in blog format.

There are currently just three classes of new amateur radio licenses issued by the FCC.  They are the beginning level called the Technician Class, which these lessons cover.  Next is the General Class which gives you a lot of extra privileges on the ham bands.  Ant the Extra Class which is the highest class license and gives the most privileges.

Those of you in other countries please understand that it is not that I do not want to help you get your amateur radio license. I would love to help you but I can’t. Every country has different requirements and I only know the requirements here in the United States. I welcome everyone to the study and even if you do live in another nation there should be some information that would help you and I invite you to ask questions about these lessons or any other questions about ham radio.

To get the most out of these lessons make them interactive. By interactive I mean I want your input and questions. If you do not understand something in the lesson e-mail your question to wa6ohp@yahoo.com include “hamslife” or “Ham’s Life” in the subject line so my spam monster will not eat it. You can also use the comment box at the bottom of each session and ask your question but because I do not check this blog each day it could go missed for a while.

I make mistakes and though I have carefully studied each lesson before publishing it. I do not have a proof reader though I desperately need one. So if you find something you believe to be an error please let me know either by e-mail at the previously mentioned address or comment in the comment section. The test questions below the text are copied directly as they are written in the question pool and some of them are not grammatically correct but I wrote them just as they will appear on the test.

If you have a ham related question or radio related technical question that is not part of the question pool please go to http://hamslife.com and use the comment box to ask your question and I will try to answer your question on that site.

Suppose you took a class and the instructor gave you a list of 396 questions with the answers and told you that the final exam will consist of 35 questions selected from the questions and answers he gave you. If you can visualize that scenario then you can understand exactly what getting your ham radio license requires.

The Technician class question pool consists of 396 questions with answers. The Technician class ham radio test has 35 questions taken out of those 396 questions. The questions on the test will be exactly the same as they are in the question pool. You have to get 26 questions correct to pass the test.

Each lesson will consist of text which will discuss the information you will need for that portion of the technician class amateur radio test. This will be followed by questions from the test pool. The answers to all the questions in a section can be found in the text that precedes the questions. Then at the bottom of the questions I give an answer key to those questions which will look something like this A, B, C, D, A. This means that the answer to question 1 is A and the answer to question 2 is B and so forth.

A letter, a number, a letter, and a number before each question identifies the question’s location in the question pool. The identification looks something like this T1A01. The breakdown of the group goes like this: T technician class, 1 means the first group of questions of that subelement, A the first sub-group of questions, and 01 the first question in that subgroup. A few questions from one sub-group will appear in another subgroup because I thought, for study purposes, the question fit in that group better then it did in its original location.

The lessons do not start out with question T1A01 because the section T1 deals with rules, regulations, definitions, and other things that may prove difficult for some people to remember because they do not understand some of the terms used in the questions: terms such as Frequency, Auxiliary station, meter band, CW, SSB and several others. The Lessons starts with SUBELEMENT T5 – Electrical principles, math for electronics, electronic principles, Ohm’s Law. This way I can introduce you to terms and explain them so when you get to the questions about how the FCC governs their use you will understand what they mean.

I would appreciate knowing you are out there so please use the comment section of this post and let me know your name or even respond anonymously if you wish.

When you have passed your Technician Class exam please let me know if these lessons helped you.

LESSON 1

SUBELEMENT T5 – Electrical principles, math for electronics, electronic principles, Ohm’s Law – [4 Exam Questions – 4 Groups]
Lesson 1a
T5A – Electrical principles; current and voltage, conductors and insulators, alternating and direct current


(If you have not read the introduction please go back and read the introduction before you begin lesson 1.)

Before we start while learning about electronics I want to challenge each of you to try to dismiss from your thinking the relative terms big, little, large, small, fast, and slow. We may consider a race horse fast unless we compare it to a race car and that race car can not be considered fast when compared to the speed of a super sonic aircraft. As we study electricity and electronics if you try to compare speed, size, or numbers to the physical world you can see and touch it may hinder your ability to comprehend.   So try not to get hung up on these properties of radio waves and just accept them.

Some of these lessons use physical illustrations to help you understand but try not to get so wrapped up into the illustration that you get lost in the difference because I assure you the difference exceed the similarities.

You do not have to completely understand all of the physics behind the principles of electronics presented in these lessons to pass the technician class ham radio test. You can, and I hope you will, do a much deeper study and learn more as time goes by. For now you only have to understand enough to answer the questions on the test. I have tried to limit these lessons to just the information you need to pass the test.

As you start these studies think of an atom. Almost everyone today knows what an atom looks like even though we can not see them. It has a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus.  I know other particles have been found but the electrons and protons are all we have to concern ourselves with in these lessons.  Forget the neutrons or any other particle.

The electrons have a negative charge and the protons have a positive charge. The term negative and positive do not have great significance beyond showing us that they are opposites.

Remember opposites attract and like repel. So electrons move away from other electrons while they move toward protons. Protons don’t move within the atom.

When an electron jumps out of its orbit it leaves that atom with more protons then electrons. That atom will then have a positive charge. Electricity is simply the movement of electrons. The medium through which electrons flow is usually a conductor.

The electrons in the atoms of copper, silver, aluminum, mercury, and other metals dislodge easily and thus make good conductors of electricity while the atoms in glass, wood, rubber, and many other things do not dislodge from their orbit easily thus they do not readily allow electrons to flow through them and are called insulators.

Electrons do not move through a conductor the same way as water flows through a pipe but the similarities will help explain some terms and help you remember them.

Flowing water has a current measured in gallons per minuets and electrons flowing through a conductor also have a current, an electrical currentis measured in Amperes. Water pressure, measured in pounds per square inch, pushes the water to form the current while electrical pressure called Electromotive Force (EMF) or voltage pushes the electrons to form an electrical current. The basic unit of Electromotive Force is the volt.

The voltage and the amperage together determine the power consumed (the rate at which electrical energy is used) by an electrical circuit. The basic unit of electrical power is the watt. (Volts times Amperes equal Watts.)

When the electrons always move in the same direction the circuit is called Direct Current (DC). Remember electrons always move towards a more positive or less negative area so if the more positive area or terminal always remains in the same place the electrons will always flow in the same direction but if the positive terminal moves back and forth on the conductor the electrons will change their direction of flow. When the electrons change direction of flow on regular bases the resulting current flow is then called Alternating Current (AC).

Alternating current like direct current is measured in volts, amperes, and watts. AC has a rate of change called the frequency which needs to be measured. If the pendulum on a clock took one half second to swing from the center position or the very bottom of its swing to the highest position in one direction and come back to the center position and take another half second to swing through to its highest position on the other side of the swing and return to the center position before it starts its new upward movement that complete cycle of the pendulum and we could say the pendulum has a frequency of one cycle per second. Likewise if AC starts from its zero volt point and flows in one direction until it reaches its peak voltage then starts decreasing until it reaches zero volts again followed by a rise in voltage in the other direction to its peak then back down to zero it would have completed one cycle. AC frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) so one complete cycle per second would equal one Hertz and sixty completed cycle in one second would equal sixty Hertz and so on.

The car battery is one common source of DC voltage with which most of us are familiar while the power source in household plugs is AC. To operate properly radios need a source of Direct Current at the proper operating voltage. Radios that plug directly into the household voltage have an internal circuit called the power supply that changes the AC voltage to proper DC voltage to supply power to the rest of the radio.

The auto industry settled on using 12 volts electrical systems in vehicles with internal combustion engines (the cars most of us drive today.) Most modern mobile transceiver (radio transmitter and receiver combined in one package) are designed to operate directly from the vehicles electrical system thus most mobile transceivers require 12 volts to operate properly. They can double as a base station simply by using a 120 VAC to 12 VDC power supply to supply the proper DC voltage, make sure the power supply has the necessary current capacity needed to transmit.

*T5A01
Electrical current is measured in which of the following units?
A. Volts
B. Watts
C. Ohms
D. Amperes
~~

*T5A02
Electrical power is measured in which of the following units?
A. Volts
B. Watts
C. Ohms
D. Amperes
~~

*T5A03
What is the name for the flow of electrons in an electric circuit?
A. Voltage
B. Resistance
C. Capacitance
D. Current
~~

*T5A04
What is the name for a current that flows only in one direction?
A. Alternating current
B. Direct current
C. Normal current
D. Smooth current
~

*T5A05
What is the electrical term for the electromotive force (EMF) that causes electron flow?
A. Voltage
B. Ampere-hours
C. Capacitance
D. Inductance
~~

*T5A06
How much voltage does a mobile transceiver usually require?
A. About 12 volts
B. About 30 volts
C. About 120 volts
D. About 240 volts
~~

*T5A07
Which of the following is a good electrical conductor?
A. Glass
B. Wood
C. Copper
D. Rubber
~~

*T5A08
Which of the following is a good electrical insulator?
A. Copper
B. Glass
C. Aluminum
D. Mercury
~~

*T5A09
What is the name for a current that reverses direction on a regular basis?
A. Alternating current
B. Direct current
C. Circular current
D. Vertical current
~~

*T5A10
Which term describes the rate at which electrical energy is used?
A. Resistance
B. Current
C. Power
D. Voltage
~~

*T5A11
What is the basic unit of electromotive force?
A. The volt
B. The watt
C. The ampere
D. The ohm
~~

Answers:
D, B, D, B, A, A, C, B, A, C, A

 

LESSON 1b

T5C – Electronic principles; capacitance, inductance, current flow in circuits, alternating current, definition of RF, power calculations T5D – Ohm’s Law

Water flowing through a pipe experiences opposition to flow do the resistance of the pipe. Electric current flowing through a conductor also experiences opposition to its flow do to electrical friction which is called resistance. The resistance of a circuit is measured in ohms.

If the EMF (voltage) remains constant and the resistance increases the current (number of amperes) will decrease. Likewise if the EMF decreases but the resistance remains constant the current will decrease. An increase in EMF or a decrease in resistance, while the other factor remains constant, will result in current increase.

The relationship between resistance, voltage, and current can be expressed mathematically in a formula we know as Ohm’s law. (Don’t panic it is not a scary as it might sound.) Just remember it takes one volt of electrical pressure to push one ampere of electrical current through one ohm of resistance. Increasing the pressure (EMF) will result in a current increase. If the resistance increases the current will decrease. If we divide the voltage by the resistance we get the current and if we divide the voltage by the current we get the resistance. If we know the current and the resistance we can find the voltage by multiplying the current times the resistance.

E (voltage) = I (current) X R (resistance) I=E/R R=E/I (When writing the formula I is used for intensity or current in amperes, E is used for EMF in volts, and R is used for resistance in ohms.)

So if a resistor has 3 amperes flowing through it and 90 volts across it the value of the resistor equals 90 divided by 3 (volts divided by amperes) which is 30 ohms. A 12 volt circuit with 1.5 amperes flowing has 8 ohms of resistance (12/1.5 = 8). A circuit with a 12 volt source which draws 4 amperes has a resistance of 3 ohms (12/4 = 3).

The current flowing through 80 ohms of resistance with an EMF of 120 volts (120 divided by 80) equals 1.5 amperes. The current flowing through a 100 ohm resistor connected across 200 volts is 2 amperes (200/100 = 2) and the current flowing through a 24 ohm resistor connected across 240 volts is 10 amperes (240/24 = 10).

Finally in our Ohm’s law calculations we need to know that the voltage across a 2 ohm resistor that has 0.5 amperes flowing through it is 1 volt because 2 times 0.5 is 1. The voltage across a 10 ohm resistor that will result in 1 ampere of current is 10 (10 X 1 = 10). A 10 ohm resistor with a current of 2 amperes flowing thought it is 20 volts (10 X 2 = 20).

The power produced by a circuit can be found by multiplying the voltage times the current. Thus a circuit with 13.8 volts DC applied with 10 amperes of current is using 138 watts of power (13.8 X 10 = 138). A circuit with 12 volts applied has 2.5 amperes of current will use 30 watts of power (12 X 2.5 = 30).

When the voltage and the power are the known quantities the current can be calculated by dividing the power by the voltage. Thus when a circuit is using 120 watts when 12 volts is applied the current equals 10 amperes (120/12 = 10).

Whether the circuit is AC or DC the electrical resistance will remain the same but Alternating Current can also have reactance which also oppose the flow of current. Reactance can be either inductive reactance or capacitive reactance. (At this point don’t worry about the term reactance for the test. I only bring it up to help you understand inductance and capacitance which are in the test questions for this lesson.)

Two conductors in close proximity of each other but separated by an insulator have an ability to form an electric field that can store an electrical charge. When the surface area of the conductor is increased or the insulator that separates the conductors is made thinner the amount of energy that can be stored is increased if the voltage remains constant. This ability to store energy in the form of an electric field is called capacitance. A basic unit of capacitance is the farad. The electronic component that utilizes this phenomenon to provide a given level of capacitance to a circuit is called a capacitor.

Electrical energy can also be stored in a magnetic field. When a wire conducts an electrical current it forms a magnetic field around it. A wire wrapped in a coil allows each turn in the coil to interact with the other turns and thus compress the magnetic field it forms in a small area and store energy. The ability to store energy in a magnetic field is called inductance thus the coil of wire used to provide a given amount of inductance can be referred to an inductor or a coil. Inductance is measured in henrys.

In lesson 1a alternating current was compared to the pendulum of a clock. When the pendulum is at its maximum point of swing in one direction it has to stop and start back in the other direction. The pendulum increases in speed as it falls (its kinetic energy increases) until it reaches bottom dead center (kinetic energy is maximum) then it starts to climb the other side and thus loose speed (kinetic energy decreases) until it stops (kinetic energy is zero) at its maximum point of swing and changes direction. The pendulum completes a cycle when it starts and moves to the opposite side and comes completely back to the starting position and moves through to the opposite side and comes back to its starting point.

I know this may seem redundant to what I said earlier but many people seem to have a difficulty in grasping frequency and I want everyone to understand. We can physically observe the frequency of a pendulum and hopefully that will help some grasp the principle of the movement of AC which we can not observe physically. The speed of movement of alternating current remains constant (near the speed of light) but the voltage and amperage rises and falls so the power (energy) will follow the rise and fall of the voltage and current (P=IE) so like the pendulum’s power changes throughout the cycle so does the AC power change through out its cycle. If you use zero volts or zero amperes as the beginning point of an AC cycle the current will then start to flow in a certain direction until it reaches a maximum (which will also be the maximum voltage and power) then the flow will decrease until it reaches zero then the current will start to flow in the other direction until it reaches maximum current flow and the current flow will then start to decrease until it reaches zero so it can change direction. That is one cycle. The number of cycles in a given second is called the frequency and is measured in hertz. So if there are 60 complete cycles in one second that circuit is said to be running at 60 Hertz (abbreviated as 60 Hz)

Alternating Current at high frequencies will create the electromagnetic waves that travel through space we know as radio waves. These radio waves or radio frequencies are frequently abbreviated as RF. All frequencies of radio waves can be referred to as RF.

*T5C01
What is the ability to store energy in an electric field called?
A. Inductance
B. Resistance
C. Tolerance
D. Capacitance
~~

*T5C02
What is the basic unit of capacitance?
A. The farad
B. The ohm
C. The volt
D. The henry
~~

*T5C03
What is the ability to store energy in a magnetic field called?
A. Admittance
B. Capacitance
C. Resistance
D. Inductance
~~

*T5C04
What is the basic unit of inductance?
A. The coulomb
B. The farad
C. The henry
D. The ohm
~~

*T5C05
What is the unit of frequency?
A. Hertz
B. Henry
C. Farad
D. Tesla
~~

*T5C06
What is the abbreviation that refers to radio frequency signals of all types?
A. AF
B. HF
C. RF
D. VHF
~~

*T5C07
What is a usual name for electromagnetic waves that travel through space?
A. Gravity waves
B. Sound waves
C. Radio waves
D. Pressure waves
~~

*T5C08
What is the formula used to calculate electrical power in a DC circuit?
A. Power (P) equals voltage (E) multiplied by current (I)
B. Power (P) equals voltage (E) divided by current (I)
C. Power (P) equals voltage (E) minus current (I)
D. Power (P) equals voltage (E) plus current (I)
~~

*T5C09
How much power is being used in a circuit when the applied voltage is 13.8 volts DC and the current is 10 amperes?
A. 138 watts
B. 0.7 watts
C. 23.8 watts
D. 3.8 watts
~~

*T5C10
How much power is being used in a circuit when the applied voltage is 12 volts DC and the current is 2.5 amperes?
A. 4.8 watts
B. 30 watts
C. 14.5 watts
D. 0.208 watts
~~

*T5C11
How many amperes are flowing in a circuit when the applied voltage is 12 volts DC and the load is 120 watts?
A. 0.1 amperes
B. 10 amperes
C. 12 amperes
D. 132 amperes
~~

Answers: (T5C1 through T5C11)
D, A, D, C, A, C, C, A, A, B, B

*T5D01
What formula is used to calculate current in a circuit?
A. Current (I) equals voltage (E) multiplied by resistance (R)
B. Current (I) equals voltage (E) divided by resistance (R)
C. Current (I) equals voltage (E) added to resistance (R)
D. Current (I) equals voltage (E) minus resistance (R)
~~

*T5D02
What formula is used to calculate voltage in a circuit?
A. Voltage (E) equals current (I) multiplied by resistance (R)
B. Voltage (E) equals current (I) divided by resistance (R)
C. Voltage (E) equals current (I) added to resistance (R)
D. Voltage (E) equals current (I) minus resistance (R)
~~

*T5D03
What formula is used to calculate resistance in a circuit?
A. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) multiplied by current (I)
B. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) divided by current (I)
C. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) added to current (I)
D. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) minus current (I)
~~

*T5D04
What is the resistance of a circuit in which a current of 3 amperes flows through a resistor connected to 90 volts?
A. 3 ohms
B. 30 ohms
C. 93 ohms
D. 270 ohms
~~

*T5D05
What is the resistance in a circuit for which the applied voltage is 12 volts and the current flow is 1.5 amperes?
A. 18 ohms
B. 0.125 ohms
C. 8 ohms
D. 13.5 ohms
~~

*T5D06
What is the resistance of a circuit that draws 4 amperes from a 12-volt source?
A. 3 ohms
B. 16 ohms
C. 48 ohms
D. 8 Ohms
~~

*T5D07
What is the current flow in a circuit with an applied voltage of 120 volts and a resistance of 80 ohms?
A. 9600 amperes
B. 200 amperes
C. 0.667 amperes
D. 1.5 amperes
~~

*T5D08
What is the current flowing through a 100-ohm resistor connected across 200 volts?
A. 20,000 amperes
B. 0.5 amperes
C. 2 amperes
D. 100 amperes
~~

*T5D09
What is the current flowing through a 24-ohm resistor connected across 240 volts?
A. 24,000 amperes
B. 0.1 amperes
C. 10 amperes
D. 216 amperes
~~

*T5D10
What is the voltage across a 2-ohm resistor if a current of 0.5 amperes flows through it?
A. 1 volt
B. 0.25 volts
C. 2.5 volts
D. 1.5 volts
~~

*T5D11
What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a current of 1 ampere flows through it?
A. 1 volt
B. 10 volts
C. 11 volts
D. 9 volts
~~

*T5D12
What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a current of 2 amperes flows through it?
A. 8 volts
B. 0.2 volts
C. 12 volts
D. 20 volts
~~

Answers: (T5D1 through T5D12)
B, A, B, B, C, A, D, C, C, A, B, D

LESSON 1c

T5B – Math for electronics; decibels, electrical units and the metric system

Milli and micro are two prefixes commonly seen where the unit being named is less then a whole. Milli equals one thousandth (.001) 500 milliwatts equals 0.5 watts. Micro equals one millionth (.000,001) one microvolt is equal to one one-millionth of a volt. Sometimes whole numbers mixed with decimal numbers will use the milli prefix. An example of a whole number with a decimal number can be seen when writing 1.5 amperes which may also be listed as 1,500 milliamperes. .

If an ammeter (meter used to measure amperes) is calibrated in amperes is used to measure a circuit with 3000 milliamperes the reading would be 3 amperes.

Pico also frequently appears as a prefix but it is usually found in front of farads or the measure of capacitance. A picofarad is equal to one micro-micro-farad or one millionth of one millionth of one farad. Thus 1,000,000 picrofarads is equal to 1 microfarad.

Larger quantities also have prefixes to assist in expressing the quantity. Radio frequencies (remember radio waves are made by high frequency AC so they would be measured in Hertz) are usually listed as kilohertz (1,000 Hertz), megahertz (1,000,000 Hertz), and gigahertz (1,000,000,000 Hertz). They are abbreviated as KHz, MHz, and GHz respectively. Thus another way of expressing a radio signal frequency of 1,500,000 Hertz is 1500 KHz. A frequency readout calibrated in megahertz showing 3.525 MHz could be expressed as 3525 KHz.

A kilo just means one thousand so one kilovolt is equal to one thousand volts.

Mega means one million so one mega watt is equal to one million watts.

Decibels are not actual units they are comparative units. That is they are a way of comparing one power level to another. A full description of decibels can be very complicated and it is not necessary to pass the technician class amateur radio test.

Just try to remember if the power is doubled it is an increase of 3 decibels (abbreviated 3 dB) if the power is increased from 5 watts to 10 watts that is a 3 db change. If the power is decreased four times the changed expressed in decibels is 6 dB (if you have some experience in dB’s you may think what I just said is an error. It may seem like it should be -6 dB but that is not the way it is on the test and just accept that there is a 6 dB difference) so if 12 watts is decreased to 3 watts that is a 6 dB change. If the power difference is ten times then the change expressed in decibels is 10 dB so an increase of power from 20 watts to 200 watts is a 10 dB change.

If the power is doubled it is a 3 dB change.

If the power is decreased four times it is a 6 dB change.

If the power is increased ten times it is a 10 dB change.

That is all you need to know about decibels to pass the test. There are only three questions on decibels in the question pool only one of which might appear on your test.

*T5B01
How many milliamperes is 1.5 amperes?
A. 15 milliamperes
B. 150 milliamperes
C. 1,500 milliamperes
D. 15,000 milliamperes
~~

*T5B02
What is another way to specify a radio signal frequency of 1,500,000 hertz?
A. 1500 kHz
B. 1500 MHz
C. 15 GHz
D. 150 kHz
~~

*T5B03
How many volts are equal to one kilovolt?
A. One one-thousandth of a volt
B. One hundred volts
C. One thousand volts
D. One million volts
~~

*T5B04
How many volts are equal to one microvolt?
A. One one-millionth of a volt
B. One million volts
C. One thousand kilovolts
D. One one-thousandth of a volt
~~

*T5B05
Which of the following is equivalent to 500 milliwatts?
A. 0.02 watts
B. 0.5 watts
C. 5 watts
D. 50 watts
~~

*T5B06
If an ammeter calibrated in amperes is used to measure a 3000-milliampere current, what reading would it show?
A. 0.003 amperes
B. 0.3 amperes
C. 3 amperes
D. 3,000,000 amperes
~~

*T5B07
If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows a reading of 3.525 MHz, what would it show if it were calibrated in kilohertz?
A. 0.003525 kHz
B. 35.25 kHz
C. 3525 kHz
D. 3,525,000 kHz
~~

*T5B08
How many microfarads are 1,000,000 picofarads?
A. 0.001 microfarads
B. 1 microfarad
C. 1000 microfarads
D. 1,000,000,000 microfarads
~~

*T5B09
What is the approximate amount of change, measured in decibels (dB), of a power increase from 5 watts to 10 watts?
A. 2 dB
B. 3 dB
C. 5 dB
D. 10 dB
~~

*T5B10
What is the approximate amount of change, measured in decibels (dB), of a power decrease from 12 watts to 3 watts?
A. 1 dB
B. 3 dB
C. 6 dB
D. 9 dB
~~

*T5B11
What is the approximate amount of change, measured in decibels (dB), of a power increase from 20 watts to 200 watts?
A. 10 dB
B. 12 dB
C. 18 dB
D.28 dB
~~

Answers:
C, A, C, A, B, C, C, B, B, C, A

—————————————————————————————————–

LESSON 2

SUBELEMENT T6 – Electrical components, semiconductors, circuit diagrams, component functions – [4 Exam Groups – 4 Questions]

Lesson 2a

T6A – Electrical components; fixed and variable resistors, capacitors, and inductors; fuses, switches, batteries

If you look at the printed circuit board of a modern piece of electronic equipment you can usually see several small items or components soldered to the board. Each component serves a purpose. An inductor can frequently be spotted because it is usually composed of a coil of wire.

Lesson one described EMF, Current, and Resistance and explained their relationship to each other. The current supplied by a voltage source can be opposed and thus controlled by a component with a predetermined resistance value known as a resistor. A fixed resistor does not have a means to change its value but variable resistors also known as potentiometer allows an operator or technician to change its resistance. Potentiometers are often used to control volume.

Do not become confused here. Both resistance and reactance oppose the flow of current but reactance only affects AC circuits and not DC. Resistance opposes the flow of current in a DC circuit

Two conductors in close proximity of each other but separated by an insulator have an ability to form an electric field that can store an electrical charge. When the surface area of the conductor is increased or the insulator that separates the conductors is made thinner the amount of energy that can be stored is increased if the voltage remains constant. This ability to store energy in the form of an electric field is called capacitance. A basic unit of capacitance is the farad. The electronic component that utilizes this phenomenon to provide a given level of capacitance to a circuit is called a capacitor.

Electrical energy can also be stored in a magnetic field. When a wire conducts an electrical current it forms a magnetic field around it. A wire wrapped in a coil allows each turn in the coil to interact with the other turns and thus compress the magnetic field it forms in a small area and store energy. The ability to store energy in a magnetic field is called inductance thus the coil of wire used to provide a given amount of inductance can be referred to an inductor or a coil. Inductance is measured in henrys.

A switch is used to connect and disconnect electrical circuits.

A fuse is designed to be the weakest link in an electrical circuit so if the current becomes excessive the fuse will open the circuit. By opening up when the current becomes too high the fuse protects other circuit components from current overloads.

A power source is necessary to operate any electronic device which included a ham radio. Mobiles and hand held radios normally use batteries as a power source. There are basically two types of batteries; the secondary cell which means it is rechargeable and primary cells which are considered not rechargeable. Carbon-zinc batteries are the most common primary cell batteries. Nickel-cadmium cells are secondary cells and a fully charged Nickel-cadmium cell will normally have a voltage of 1.2 volts.

*T6A01
What electrical component is used to oppose the flow of current in a DC circuit?
A. Inductor
B. Resistor
C. Voltmeter
D. Transformer
~~

*T6A02
What type of component is often used as an adjustable volume control?
A. Fixed resistor
B. Power resistor
C. Potentiometer
D. Transformer
~~

*T6A03
What electrical parameter is controlled by a potentiometer?
A. Inductance
B. Resistance
C. Capacitance
D. Field strength
~~

*T6A04
What electrical component stores energy in an electric field?
A. Resistor
B. Capacitor
C. Inductor
D. Diode
~~

*T6A05
What type of electrical component consists of two or more conductive surfaces separated by an insulator?
A. Resistor
B. Potentiometer
C. Oscillator
D. Capacitor
~~

*T6A06
What type of electrical component stores energy in a magnetic field?
A. Resistor
B. Capacitor
C. Inductor
D. Diode
~~

*T6A07
What electrical component is usually composed of a coil of wire?
A. Switch
B. Capacitor
C. Diode
D. Inductor
~~

T6A08
What electrical component is used to connect or disconnect electrical circuits?
A. Zener Diode
B. Switch
C. Inductor
D. Variable resistor
~~

*T6A09
What electrical component is used to protect other circuit components from current overloads?
A. Fuse
B. Capacitor
C. Shield
D. Inductor
~~

T6A10
What is the nominal voltage of a fully charged nickel-cadmium cell?
A. 1.0 volts
B. 1.2 volts
C. 1.5 volts
D. 2.2 volts
~~

T6A11
Which battery type is not rechargeable?
A. Nickel-cadmium
B. Carbon-zinc
C. Lead-acid
D. Lithium-ion
~~

Answers:
B, C, B, B, D, C, D, B, A, B, B

Lesson 2B

T6B – Semiconductors; basic principles of diodes and transistors

When I got my ham radio license, 1960, the most common active device used in amplifiers was the vacuum tube. (The term “active device” means the electronic component that uses voltage or current at the input to control the current flow at the output.) Transistor radios were just starting to become popular. Today the most common electronic components capable of using a voltage or current signal to control current flow is the transistor.

Semiconductors with special preparations make up the heart of modern solid state technology. Up to this point I have discussed conductors and insulators thus you may think a semiconductor is something that lies in between these two. The best way I know to explain a semiconductor is to say it is a conductor under certain conditions and an insulator under other conditions. Any greater explanation of semiconductors and how they work goes beyond the scope of these lessons and not necessary for you to know to get your Technician class license.

For now just accept that transistors, solid state diodes, Light Emitting diodes and other solid state components, not named here because they are not part of the test, are composed of treated semiconductors. There are two basic types of transistors: the bipolar junction transistor which is made of three layers of semiconductor material and the Field Effect Transistor abbreviated “FET”. For the purpose of the test remember that the bipolar transistor has an emitter electrode and the FET has a gate electrode.

Transistors can be used as an electronic switch or amplifier. The transistor is the main solid state component used as an amplifier.

The Diode allows current to flow in only one direction. The two elements of the diode are the “Anode” and the “Cathode.” A stripe on the body of the diode usually identifies the cathode side.

The Light Emitting Diode, abbreviated “LED”, will produce light while conducting current.

The input of an amplifier receives a signal then the amplifier processes it so a larger signal appears at the output. The ability of a transistor to amplify a signal is called “Gain.”

*T6B01
What class of electronic components is capable of using a voltage or current signal to control current flow?
A. Capacitors
B. Inductors
C. Resistors
D. Transistors
~~

*T6B02
What electronic component allows current to flow in only one direction?
A. Resistor
B. Fuse
C. Diode
D. Driven Element
~~

*T6B03
Which of these components can be used as an electronic switch or amplifier?
A. Oscillator
B. Potentiometer
C. Transistor
D. Voltmeter
~~

*T6B04
Which of these components is made of three layers of semiconductor material?
A. Alternator
B. Bipolar junction transistor
C. Triode
D. Pentagrid converter
~~

*T6B05
Which of the following electronic components can amplify signals?
A. Transistor
B. Variable resistor
C. Electrolytic capacitor
D. Multi-cell battery
~~

*T6B06
How is a semiconductor diode’s cathode lead usually identified?
A. With the word “cathode”
B. With a stripe
C. With the letter “C”
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T6B07
What does the abbreviation “LED” stand for?
A. Low Emission Diode
B. Light Emitting Diode
C. Liquid Emission Detector
D. Long Echo Delay
~~

*T6B08
What does the abbreviation “FET” stand for?
A. Field Effect Transistor
B. Fast Electron Transistor
C. Free Electron Transition
D. Field Emission Thickness
~~

*T6B09
What are the names of the two electrodes of a diode?
A. Plus and minus
B. Source and drain
C. Anode and cathode
D. Gate and base
~~

*T6B10
Which semiconductor component has an emitter electrode?
A. Bipolar transistor
B. Field effect transistor
C. Silicon diode
D. Bridge rectifier
~~

*T6B11
Which semiconductor component has a gate electrode?
A. Bipolar transistor
B. Field effect transistor
C. Silicon diode
D. Bridge rectifier
~~

*T6B12
What is the term that describes a transistor’s ability to amplify a signal?
A. Gain
B. Forward resistance
C. Forward voltage drop
D. On resistance
~~

Answers:
D, C, C, B, A, B, B, A, C, A, B, A

LESSON 2c
T6C – Circuit diagrams; schematic symbols

The Technician class amateur radio license test may include some schematic symbol identification. Schematic symbols are standardized representations of components in an electrical wiring diagram. A schematic diagram gives an accurate representation of the way components are interconnected in an electrical circuit. It has nothing to do with the physical appearance of the components, the physical location of the components in the unit, or the wire lengths of components.

You do not need to learn how to actually read the diagrams but just how to identify a few individual components shown in the diagram.

There are four different components in diagram T1 which you may be asked to identify. Component 1 depicts a Resistor while component 2 is a Transistor. Component 3 of diagram T1 is a lamp and component 4 is a Battery.

The function of a transistor is to control the current. Section D has a question that refers to T1 and if you remember that a transistor controls current and that component 2 on the T1 drawing is a transistor you should score on that question if you get it.

Just look at them and try to remember what they look like. It might help to draw the individual components and label them.

Questions about four components from T2 appear in this section of the test question pool. They are as follows: component 6 is a Capacitor, component 8 is a light emitting diode, Component 9 shows a Variable Resistor, and component 4 is a Transformer.

Component 3 of T2 is a single-pole single-throw switch but that question will not appear until the next section.

Notice the similarity between component 1 in the T1 diagram and component 9 in the T2 drawing. They are both resistors but the arrow shows in component 9 of T2 identifies that the resistance is changeable or variable which makes it a variable resistor or potentiometer.

Diagram T3 only has two components to learn, component 3, the variable inductor (notice the arrow again which designates it as variable or changeable) and component 4 the antenna. (For information only and not on the test: Component 2 is a variable capacitor.)

*T6C01 (C)
What is the name for standardized representations of components in an electrical wiring diagram?
A. Electrical depictions
B. Grey sketch
C. Schematic symbols
D. Component callouts
~~

*T6C02 (A)
What is component 1 in figure T1?
A. Resistor
B. Transistor
C. Battery
D. Connector
~~

*T6C03
What is component 2 in figure T1?
A. Resistor
B. Transistor
C. Indicator lamp
D. Connector
~~

*T6C04
What is component 3 in figure T1?
A. Resistor
B. Transistor
C. Lamp
D. Ground symbol
~~

*T6C05
What is component 4 in figure T1?
A. Resistor
B. Transistor
C. Battery
D. Ground symbol
~~

*T6C06
What is component 6 in figure T2?
A. Resistor
B. Capacitor
C. Regulator IC
D. Transistor
~~

*T6C07
What is component 8 in figure T2?
A. Resistor
B. Inductor
C. Regulator IC
D. Light emitting diode
~~

*T6C08
What is component 9 in figure T2?
A. Variable capacitor
B. Variable inductor
C. Variable resistor
D. Variable transformer
~~

*T6C09
What is component 4 in figure T2?
A. Variable inductor
B. Double-pole switch
C. Potentiometer
D. Transformer
~~

T6C10
What is component 3 in figure T3?
A. Connector
B. Meter
C. Variable capacitor
D. Variable inductor
~~

T6C11
What is component 4 in figure T3?
A. Antenna
B. Transmitter
C. Dummy load
D. Ground
~~

T6C12
What do the symbols on an electrical circuit schematic diagram represent?
A. Electrical components
B. Logic states
C. Digital codes
D. Traffic nodes
~~

T6C13
Which of the following is accurately represented in electrical circuit schematic diagrams?
A. Wire lengths
B. Physical appearance of components
C. The way components are interconnected
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

Answers:
C, A, B, C, C, B, D, C, D, D, A, A, C

LESSON 2d

T6D – Component functions

Each component in an electronic circuit serves a specific purpose.

To provide the appropriate voltage for modern radio equipment the 120 VAC standard household power must be reduced significantly. A transformer can be used to reduce the AC voltage. Next the AC must be changed to DC because radios do not work directly on AC. A Rectifier changes alternating current into varying direct current signal. That varying direct current signal must be smoothed out but there are no questions in this section about components used to do that so I will not explain.

A regulator is used to control the amount of voltage from a power supply.

Switches are necessary to turn circuits on and off or to change the function of a circuit. Some switches are operated manually as the Single-pole single-throw switch like the one schematically drawn in Figure T2 item 3. Some switches are controlled by an electromagnet these switches are called relays.

Visual display of operation in electronic devices may be as simple as a light or group of lights. The LED is commonly used for this type of visual indicator. Other times the visual display requires a movement or meter. A meter can be used to display signal strength on a numeric scale.

Tuned circuits are the means of separating out specific frequencies of radio waves. That is how a radio receiver can select one station while rejecting others. A capacitor is used together with an inductor to make a tuned circuit.

A ham shack usually has the radios, transmitters and receivers, inside while the antennas are outside on some type of support. When the antenna and the radio are separated they need some form of feed-line or conductor to tie them together. Coaxial cable is commonly used to carry RF signals between a radio and antenna.

The function of a transistor controls the flow current in an electronic circuit. One question in this section refers to figure T1 component 2 which, as you learned earlier, represents a transistor. So it follows that component 2 in figure T1 controls the current.

In the 1960’s Integrated circuits (IC) began to show up in the field of electronics. An Integrated circuit is a way to combine several semiconductors and other components into one package.

*T6D01
Which of the following devices or circuits changes an alternating current into a varying direct current signal?
A. Transformer
B. Rectifier
C. Amplifier
D. Reflector
~~

*T6D02
What best describes a relay?
A. A switch controlled by an electromagnet
B. A current controlled amplifier
C. An optical sensor
D. A pass transistor
~~

*T6D03
What type of switch is represented by item 3 in figure T2?
A. Single-pole single-throw
B. Single-pole double-throw
C. Double-pole single-throw
D. Double-pole double-throw
~~

*T6D04
Which of the following can be used to display signal strength on a numeric scale?
A. Potentiometer
B. Transistor
C. Meter
D. Relay
~~

*T6D05
What type of circuit controls the amount of voltage from a power supply?
A. Regulator
B. Oscillator
C. Filter
D. Phase inverter
~~

*T6D06
What component is commonly used to change 120V AC house current to a lower AC voltage for other uses?
A. Variable capacitor
B. Transformer
C. Transistor
D. Diode
~~

*T6D07
Which of the following is commonly used as a visual indicator?
A. LED
B. FET
C. Zener diode
D. Bipolar transistor
~~

*T6D08
Which of the following is used together with an inductor to make a tuned circuit?
A. Resistor
B. Zener diode
C. Potentiometer
D. Capacitor
~~

*T6D09
What is the name of a device that combines several semiconductors and other components into one package?
A. Transducer
B. Multi-pole relay
C. Integrated circuit
D. Transformer
~~

*T6D10
What is the function of component 2 in Figure T1?
A. Give off light when current flows through it
B. Supply electrical energy
C. Control the flow of current
D. Convert electrical energy into radio waves
~~

*T6D11
Which of the following is a common use of coaxial cable?
A. Carry dc power from a vehicle battery to a mobile radio
B. Carry RF signals between a radio and antenna
C. Secure masts, tubing, and other cylindrical objects on towers
D. Connect data signals from a TNC to a computer
~~

Answers:
B, A, A, C, A, B, A, D, C, C, B

—————————————————————————————————-

LESSON 3

SUBELEMENT T3 – Radio wave characteristics, radio and electromagnetic properties, propagation modes – [3 Exam Questions – 3 Groups]

Lesson 3a

T3B – Radio and electromagnetic wave properties; the electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength vs. frequency, velocity of electromagnetic waves

A radio wave consists of two components: Electric and Magnetic fields. Thus radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation. Radio waves travel through free space at about 300,000,000 meters per second the same as the speed of light.

Radio waves are formed by rapidly changing alternating current. The number of times per second that an alternating current reverses direction is called Frequency and is measured in Hertz. The distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle is its wavelength.

The approximate wavelength of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands. So 50 MHz to 54 MHz is called the 6 meter band and 144 MHz to 148 MHz is called the 2 meter band.

The wavelengths of radio waves are normally measured in meters and they can be calculated. The formula for calculating wavelength is: Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by the frequency in megahertz. Notice 300 is a constant and the frequency varies. The frequency is divided into the 300 so the larger the number for frequency the smaller the number will be for the wave length. The wave length gets shorter as the frequency increases.

The terms High Frequency (HF) and Very High Frequency (VHF) were used when 100 MHz was difficult to obtain so it was considered Very High Frequency. We have continued to maintain the scale established many decades ago. HF frequencies are radio waves from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. VHF frequencies are 30 MHz to 300 MHz and UHF frequencies extend from 300 MHz to 3000 MHz. To help remember this just remember HF starts at 3 MHz and when you multiply times 10 it is at the breaking point of HF to VHF. Then again multiply by 10 and it is the pivot point between VHF and UHF.

*T3B01
What is the name for the distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle?
A. Wave speed
B. Waveform
C. Wavelength
D. Wave spread
~~

*T3B02
What term describes the number of times per second that an alternating current reverses direction?
A. Pulse rate
B. Speed
C. Wavelength
D. Frequency
~~

*T3B03
What are the two components of a radio wave?
A. AC and DC
B. Voltage and current
C. Electric and magnetic fields
D. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
~~

*T3B04
How fast does a radio wave travel through free space?
A. At the speed of light
B. At the speed of sound
C. Its speed is inversely proportional to its wavelength
D. Its speed increases as the frequency increases
~~

*T3B05
How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its frequency?
A. The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increases
B. The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increases
C. There is no relationship between wavelength and frequency
D. The wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the signal
~~

*T3B06
What is the formula for converting frequency to wavelength in meters?
A. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300
B. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300
C. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300
D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz
~~

*T3B07
What property of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands?
A. The approximate wavelength
B. The magnetic intensity of waves
C. The time it takes for waves to travel one mile
D. The voltage standing wave ratio of waves
~~

*T3B08
What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum?
A. 30 to 300 kHz
B. 30 to 300 MHz
C. 300 to 3000 kHz
D. 300 to 3000 MHz
~~

*T3B09
What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum?
A. 30 to 300 kHz
B. 30 to 300 MHz
C. 300 to 3000 kHz
D. 300 to 3000 MHz
~~

*T3B10
What frequency range is referred to as HF?
A. 300 to 3000 MHz
B. 30 to 300 MHz
C. 3 to 30 MHz
D. 300 to 3000 kHz
~~

*T3B11
What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travels through free space?
A. 3000 kilometers per second
B. 300,000,000 meters per second
C. 300,000 miles per hour
D. 186,000 miles per hour
~~

Answers:
C, D, C, A, B, D, A, B, D, C, B

LESSON 3b

T3A – Radio wave characteristics; how a radio signal travels; distinctions of HF, VHF and UHF; fading, multipath; wavelength vs. penetration; antenna orientation

Radio signals are polarized. If a half wave antenna is parallel to the horizon the signal it radiates is horizontally polarized. If the antenna is perpendicular to the horizon it is vertically polarized. For maximum transfer of signals between a transmitter and receiver both antennas should have the same polarization. Most mobile stations antennas are vertically polarized thus most repeater have vertical polarization. For long–distance CW and SSB contacts on VHF and UHF bands where signal strengths might be weak horizontal polarization is most commonly used. If the transmitting antenna and receiving antenna do not have the same polarization when attempting line of sight communications on the VHF or UHF bands the signals could be significantly weaker then.

The ability of HF signals to bounce off the upper atmosphere allows hams to communicate around the world. The Ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that enables the propagation of radio signals around the world. The radio waves, normally HF radio signals, strike the Ionosphere and are reflected back to earth then bounce back up and down. A common effect of “skip” reflection between the Earth and the Ionosphere is the polarization of the original signal is randomized. That is why antenna polarization is not normally as critical on HF operations as it is on VHF and UHF.

When operating VHF and above (The bands authorized for technician class amateur radio operators) signals are more easily reflected from surrounding objects than are lower frequencies. Random combining of signals arriving via different path lengths (called multi-path) can cause irregular fading of signals from distant stations during times of generally good reception. Multi-path can result in weak or distorted signal or both. If another operator reports that your station’s 2 meter signals were strong just a few moments ago, but now they are week or distorted try moving a few feet, as random reflections may cause multi-path distortion.

When using a directional antenna on VHF and above frequencies reflected signals can sometimes work to an advantage. Your station might be able to access a distant repeater if buildings or obstructions are blocking the direct line of site path by trying to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater.

UHF signals often are more effective from inside buildings then VHF signals because UHF has a shorter wavelength than VHF which allows them to more easily penetrate the building’s structure.

Mobile stations transmitting while in motion will sometimes be heard by the receiving station with a rapid fluttering sound. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as “Picket fencing.”

The ability of receiving stations to detect and correct errors in data transmissions is one of the reasons data communications is so popular. If the error rate is too large it can slow down the communications, When VHF or UHF data signals propagate over multiple the error rates are likely to increase.

*T3A01
What should you do if another operator reports that your station’s 2 meter signals were strong just a moment ago, but now they are weak or distorted?
A. Change the batteries in your radio to a different type
B. Turn on the CTCSS tone
C. Ask the other operator to adjust his squelch control
D. Try moving a few feet, as random reflections may be causing multi-path distortion
~~

*T3A02
Why are UHF signals often more effective from inside buildings than VHF signals?
A. VHF signals lose power faster over distance
B. The shorter wavelength allows them to more easily penetrate the structure of buildings
C. This is incorrect; VHF works better than UHF inside buildings
D. UHF antennas are more efficient than VHF antennas
~~

*T3A03
What antenna polarization is normally used for long-distance weak-signal CW and SSB contacts using the VHF and UHF bands?
A. Right-hand circular
B. Left-hand circular
C. Horizontal
D. Vertical
~~

*T3A04
What can happen if the antennas at opposite ends of a VHF or UHF line of sight radio link are not using the same polarization?
A. The modulation sidebands might become inverted
B. Signals could be significantly weaker
C. Signals have an echo effect on voices
D. Nothing significant will happen
~~

*T3A05
When using a directional antenna, how might your station be able to access a distant repeater if buildings or obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight path?
A. Change from vertical to horizontal polarization
B. Try to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater
C. Try the long path
D. Increase the antenna SWR
~~

*T3A06
What term is commonly used to describe the rapid fluttering sound sometimes heard from mobile stations that are moving while transmitting?
A. Flip-flopping
B. Picket fencing
C. Frequency shifting
D. Pulsing
~~

*T3A07
What type of wave carries radio signals between transmitting and receiving stations?
A. Electromagnetic
B. Electrostatic
C. Surface acoustic
D. Magnetostrictive
~~

*T3A08
What is the cause of irregular fading of signals from distant stations during times of generally good reception?
A. Absorption of signals by the “D” layer of the ionosphere
B. Absorption of signals by the “E” layer of the ionosphere
C. Random combining of signals arriving via different path lengths
D. Intermodulation distortion in the local receiver
~~

*T3A09
Which of the following is a common effect of “skip” reflections between the Earth and the ionosphere?
A. The sidebands become reversed at each reflection
B. The polarization of the original signal is randomized
C. The apparent frequency of the received signal is shifted by a random amount
D. Signals at frequencies above 30 MHz become stronger with each reflection
~~

*T3A10
What may occur if VHF or UHF data signals propagate over multiple paths?
A. Transmission rates can be increased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed
B. Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed
C. No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitting using FM
D. Error rates are likely to increase
~~

*T3A11
Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation of radio signals around the world?
A. The stratosphere
B. The troposphere
C. The ionosphere
D. The magnetosphere
~~

Answers:
D, B, C, B, B, B, A, C, B, D, C

Lesson 3c

T3C – Propagation modes; line of sight, sporadic E, meteor, aurora scatter, tropospheric ducting, F layer skip, radio horizon

The ionosphere reflects HF signals back to earth which allows communications well beyond the horizon but UHF signals are rarely heard from stations outside the transmitting stations local coverage area because UHF signals are usually not reflected by the ionosphere.

The ionosphere has been divided into various layers which are designated by letters of the alphabet. The E and the F layers are the most significant for radio propagation. UHF signals VHF signals will normally pass through the ionosphere but occasionally the E layer will become ionized to a much higher level than normal. This is called a Sporadic E layer and it is the propagation type which is most commonly associated with occasional strong over-the-horizon signals on 10, 6, and 2 meter bands.

Because the sun ionizes the ionosphere and the ionization is usually closely associated with the sun spots then the higher frequency long range communications usually occur during the daylight hours. Thus daylight hours provides the best long distance communications propagation on 10 meters.

Sight or light horizon and radio horizon do not occur at the same distance from the source of the signal or light. The radio horizon is the distance at which radio signals between two points are effectively blocked by the curvature of the Earth. VHF and UHF radio signals will usually travel a little farther than the visual line of sight distance between two stations because the Earth seems a little less curved to radio signals then it does to light.

There are other factors that affect the way radio waves travel from a transmitter to a receiver. Sometimes a signal can reach a receiver where it may not be expected to reach because of “knife-edge” propagation. “Knife-edge” propagation results from signals being partially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges.

The aurora (Northern or Southern lights) are sometimes able to reflect VHF. The characteristic of a VHF signal received via aroral reflection will exhibit a rapid fluctuation of strength of the signal and often the sound is distorted. It is a sound once you hear you won’t forget but until you hear an aroral reflection it is hard to explain.

Meteor showers also give opportunity to use VHF to talk to stations over the horizon. 6 Meters is usually the band best suited to communicating via meteor scatter.

The Troposphere is that layer of the atmosphere in which we live and breathe. It extends up to about 25,000 feet above sea level. This is the layer in which our weather is generated. VHF and UHF signals can be heard from over the horizon with ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis do to “Tropospheric scatter” also known as “Troposperic ducting.” Tropospheric ducting is caused by temperature inversions in the atmosphere.

*T3C01
Why are “direct” (not via a repeater) UHF signals rarely heard from stations outside your local coverage area?
A. They are too weak to go very far
B. FCC regulations prohibit them from going more than 50 miles
C. UHF signals are usually not reflected by the ionosphere
D. They collide with trees and shrubbery and fade out
~~

*T3C02
Which of the following might be happening when VHF signals are being received from long distances?
A. Signals are being reflected from outer space
B. Signals are arriving by sub-surface ducting
C. Signals are being reflected by lightning storms in your area
D. Signals are being refracted from a sporadic E layer
~~

*T3C03
What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral reflection?
A. Signals from distances of 10,000 or more miles are common
B. The signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strength and often sound distorted
C. These types of signals occur only during winter nighttime hours
D. These types of signals are generally strongest when your antenna is aimed to the south (for stations in the Northern Hemisphere)
~~
*T3C04
Which of the following propagation types is most commonly associated with occasional strong over-the-horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands?
A. Backscatter
B. Sporadic E
C. D layer absorption
D. Gray-line propagation
~~

*T3C05
What is meant by the term “knife-edge” propagation?
A. Signals are reflected back toward the originating station at acute angles
B. Signals are sliced into several discrete beams and arrive via different paths
C. Signals are partially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges
D. Signals propagated close to the band edge exhibiting a sharp cutoff
~~

*T3C06
What mode is responsible for allowing over-the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis?
A. Tropospheric scatter
B. D layer refraction
C. F2 layer refraction
D. Faraday rotation
~~

*T3C07
What band is best suited to communicating via meteor scatter?
A. 10 meters
B. 6 meters
C. 2 meters
D. 70 cm
~~

*T3C08
What causes “tropospheric ducting”?
A. Discharges of lightning during electrical storms
B. Sunspots and solar flares
C. Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoes
D. Temperature inversions in the atmosphere
~~

*T3C09
What is generally the best time for long-distance 10 meter band propagation?
A. During daylight hours
B. During nighttime hours
C. When there are coronal mass ejections
D. Whenever the solar flux is low
~~

*T3C10
What is the radio horizon?
A. The distance at which radio signals between two points are effectively blocked by the curvature of the Earth
B. The distance from the ground to a horizontally mounted antenna
C. The farthest point you can see when standing at the base of your antenna tower
D. The shortest distance between two points on the Earth’s surface
~~

*T3C11
Why do VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel somewhat farther than the visual line of sight distance between two stations?
A. Radio signals move somewhat faster than the speed of light
B. Radio waves are not blocked by dust particles
C. The Earth seems less curved to radio waves than to light
D. Radio waves are blocked by dust particles
~~

Answers:
C, D, B, B, C, A, B, D, A, A, C

—————————————————————————————————-

LESSON 4

SUBELEMENT T9 – Antennas, feedlines – [2 Exam Questions – 2 Groups]

Lesson 4a

T9A – Antennas; vertical and horizontal, concept of gain, common portable and mobile antennas, relationships between antenna length and frequency

A bad antenna connected to the most expensive transceiver can result in very poor or no communications while a good antenna connected to an inexpensive transceiver under the same conditions may have excellent communications. The antenna is the part of the station which links the transmitting station to the receiving station.

The most basic antenna is the half wave antenna. For many decades the center fed dipole has been the most common wire antenna. The dipole antenna consists of two quarter wave long wires connected to an insulator and stretched out between two supports. The feed line of a dipole connects across the insulator in the center and runs down to connect to the antenna input of the radio.

Since the resonant frequency (the frequency at which it works best) of a dipole antenna is directly related to the wavelength of the radio signal then it should seem reasonable that if the wires were cut to shorter lengths it would raise the resonant frequency of the antenna. So to change a dipole antenna to make it resonant on a higher frequency you can shorten it.

Most simple dipole antennas are mounted so the conductor is parallel to the Earth’s surface. When the conductor is parallel to the ground the antenna is horizontally polarized. If the conductor is at a right angle or perpendicular to the Earth’s surface the antenna is vertically polarized. The electric field of a vertical antenna is perpendicular to the Earth’s surface while the magnetic field is parallel to the Earth’s surface.

Though stations can be worked off the end of a dipole the direction of the strongest radiation of a half-wave dipole antenna in free space is broadside to the antenna.

A half wave antenna for 6 meter is approximately 112 inches long. A quarter wave antenna for 146 MHz (2 meter band) is approximately 19 inches long.

A beam antenna is an antenna that concentrates signals in one direction. The quad, Yagi, and dish are three types of these directional or beam antennas. Think of the beam antenna like the beam of a flashlight. The flash light focuses the light into a beam so it will light up a smaller area with greater intensity then the same bulb would do if it was allowed to radiate equally in all directions.

The beam antenna is one example of a gain antenna. A gain antenna increases the signal strength in a specified direction when compared to a reference antenna.

Hand held radios frequently have a shortened flexible antenna affectionately referred to as a “rubber duck.” The disadvantage of the “rubber duck” antenna supplied with most handheld radio transceivers is it does not transmit or receive as effectively as a full-sized antenna. Many hams are tempted to use their handheld radios inside their cars using just the “rubber duck” antenna. Using the “rubber duck” antenna inside your car is not usually a good idea because signals can be significantly weaker inside the vehicle than when it is outside the vehicle. Thus it is best if using a handheld radio inside a vehicle to attach an external antenna, such as a magmount antenna, to the antenna port.

*T9A01
What is a beam antenna?
A. An antenna built from aluminum I-beams
B. An omnidirectional antenna invented by Clarence Beam
C. An antenna that concentrates signals in one direction
D. An antenna that reverses the phase of received signals
~~

*T9A02
Which of the following is true regarding vertical antennas?
A. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the Earth
B. The electric field is perpendicular to the Earth
C. The phase is inverted
D. The phase is reversed
~~

*T9A03
Which of the following describes a simple dipole mounted so the conductor is parallel to the Earth’s surface?
A. A ground wave antenna
B. A horizontally polarized antenna
C. A rhombic antenna
D. A vertically polarized antenna
~~

*T9A04
What is a disadvantage of the “rubber duck” antenna supplied with most handheld radio transceivers?
A. It does not transmit or receive as effectively as a full-sized antenna
B. It transmits a circularly polarized signal
C. If the rubber end cap is lost it will unravel very quickly
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T9A05
How would you change a dipole antenna to make it resonant on a higher frequency?
A. Lengthen it
B. Insert coils in series with radiating wires
C. Shorten it
D. Add capacity hats to the ends of the radiating wires
~~

*T9A06
What type of antennas are the quad, Yagi, and dish?
A. Non-resonant antennas
B. Loop antennas
C. Directional antennas
D. Isotropic antennas
~~

*T9A07
What is a good reason not to use a “rubber duck” antenna inside your car?
A. Signals can be significantly weaker than when it is outside of the vehicle
B. It might cause your radio to overheat
C. The SWR might decrease, decreasing the signal strength
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T9A08
What is the approximate length, in inches, of a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna for 146 MHz?
A. 112
B. 50
C. 19
D. 12
~~

*T9A09
What is the approximate length, in inches, of a 6 meter 1/2-wavelength wire dipole antenna?
A. 6
B. 50
C. 112
D. 236
~~

*T9A10
In which direction is the radiation strongest from a half-wave dipole antenna in free space?
A. Equally in all directions
B. Off the ends of the antenna
C. Broadside to the antenna
D. In the direction of the feedline
~~

*T9A11
What is meant by the gain of an antenna?
A. The additional power that is added to the transmitter power
B. The additional power that is lost in the antenna when transmitting on a higher frequency
C. The increase in signal strength in a specified direction when compared to a reference antenna
D. The increase in impedance on receive or transmit compared to a reference antenna
~~

Answers:
C, B, B, A, C, C, A, C, C, C, C

Lesson 4b

T9B – Feedlines; types, losses vs. frequency, SWR concepts, matching weather protection, connectors

For proper RF transmission and reception a good antenna will continuously prove itself a key factor but any antenna, no matter how good it is, can not function well if the conductor between the radio and the antenna does not do its job. Feedline is a conductor used to connect the antenna to the transmitter or receiver.

The most common feedline used for amateur radio operations is the 50 ohm coaxial cable. Coaxial cable is a conductor or wire surrounded by an insulator which is covered with a conductor, usually braided copper wire, which is then insulated and protected from weathering by an outer coat. The reason coaxial cable is used more often then other feedlines for amateur radio antenna systems is because it is easy to use and requires few special installation considerations.

Two common types of coaxial feedline used by amateur radio operators is the smaller RG-58 and the larger RG-8. Both are 50 ohm but because RG-8 is larger thus it has less loss at a given frequency. Air-insulated hard line is not commonly used in the ham shack but when compared to 50-ohm flexible coax (RG-8 and RG-58) and 75-ohm flexible coax it has the lowest loss at VHF and UHF frequencies. (Multi-conductor unbalanced cable is not a recognized feedline.)

As the frequency of a radio signal passing through coaxial cable increases the signal loss will also increase. Signal loss in a coax line turns into heat.

Weathering can increase feedline signal loss and coax connectors do not seal well against water. Thus coax connectors exposed to the weather should be sealed against water intrusion to prevent an increase in feedline loss.

Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) is the ratio of signal going from the transmitter to the antenna as compared to the amount of signal that is reflected back down the coax from the antenna. To allow the efficient transfer of power and reduce losses it is important to have a low SWR in an antenna system that uses coaxial cable feedline. A high SWR indicates there is an impedance mismatch in the antenna system. An antenna tuner can be used to match the antenna system’s impedance to the transceiver’s output impedance.

If erratic changes in SWR reading are noticed the cause might be a loose connection to an antenna or a feedline.

The PL-259 (male connector) and the SO-239 (female connector) are frequently referred to as UHF connectors. That is an unfortunate term because they are not the best connector to use at UHF frequencies. The origin of the term UHF connector seems to have some debate but does not appear on technician class test so don’t concern yourself with it. Of the connecters mentioned in the test the “N” type of connecter is the most suitable for use with frequencies at 400 MHz and above. The PL-259 connectors are commonly used at HF frequencies.

*T9B01
Why is it important to have a low SWR in an antenna system that uses coaxial cable feedline?
A. To reduce television interference
B. To allow the efficient transfer of power and reduce losses
C. To prolong antenna life
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T9B02
What is the impedance of the most commonly used coaxial cable in typical amateur radio installations?
A. 8 ohms
B. 50 ohms
C. 600 ohms
D. 12 ohms
~~

*T9B03
Why is coaxial cable used more often than any other feedline for amateur radio antenna systems?
A. It is easy to use and requires few special installation considerations
B. It has less loss than any other type of feedline
C. It can handle more power than any other type of feedline
D. It is less expensive than any other types of feedline
~~

*T9B04
What does an antenna tuner do?
A. It matches the antenna system impedance to the transceiver’s output impedance
B. It helps a receiver automatically tune in weak stations
C. It allows an antenna to be used on both transmit and receive
D. It automatically selects the proper antenna for the frequency band being used
~~

*T9B05
What generally happens as the frequency of a signal passing through coaxial cable is increased?
A. The apparent SWR increases
B. The reflected power increases
C. The characteristic impedance increases
D. The loss increases
~~

*T9B06
Which of the following connectors is most suitable for frequencies above 400 MHz?
A. A UHF (PL-259/SO-239) connector
B. A Type N connector
C. An RS-213 connector
D. A DB-23 connector
~~

*T9B07
Which of the following is true of PL-259 type coax connectors?
A. They are good for UHF frequencies
B. They are water tight
C. The are commonly used at HF frequencies
D. They are a bayonet type connector
~~

*T9B08
Why should coax connectors exposed to the weather be sealed against water intrusion?
A. To prevent an increase in feedline loss
B. To prevent interference to telephones
C. To keep the jacket from becoming loose
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T9B09
What might cause erratic changes in SWR readings?
A. The transmitter is being modulated
B. A loose connection in an antenna or a feedline
C. The transmitter is being over-modulated
D. Interference from other stations is distorting your signal
~~

*T9B10
What electrical difference exists between the smaller RG-58 and larger RG-8 coaxial cables?
A. There is no significant difference between the two types
B. RG-58 cable has less loss at a given frequency
C. RG-8 cable has less loss at a given frequency
D. RG-58 cable can handle higher power levels
~~

*T9B11
Which of the following types of feedline has the lowest loss at VHF and UHF?
A. 50-ohm flexible coax
B. Multi-conductor unbalanced cable
C. Air-insulated hard line
D. 75-ohm flexible coax
~~

Answers:
B, B, A, A, D, B, C, A, B, C, C,

Lesson 4c

T7C – Antenna measurements and troubleshooting; measuring SWR, dummy loads, feedline failure modes

In general terms the standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of how well a load is matched to a transmission line (feedline). If the antenna and the feedline have a perfect match the SWR meter will read 1 to 1. A 4:1 (4 to 1) reading on the SWR meter means there is an impedance mismatch.

A high SWR results in power loss in the feedline. Power loss in the feedline is converted to heat.

A high SWR not only results in power loss but it is also can cause damage to transmitters. Many modern solid-state transmitters have a protection circuit built in which will begin to reduce the transmitters output power when the SWR reaches 2 to 1 and will continue to limit the power more as the SWR goes higher.

Most amateur radio stations use SWR meters to check the SWR of an antenna system but a directional watt meter can also be used to check the SWR.

An antenna analyzer is an instrument which can be used to determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired operating frequency without radiating a potential interfering signal.

During these lessons the term impedance has been mentioned several times. For the purpose of the ham test a full understanding of impedance is not necessary but at least a little understanding may help remember the answers to some of the questions and help understand how to set up your station when you get your license.

Earlier we learned that resistance is the opposition to current flow in an electrical circuit. When working with alternating current reactance will also oppose the flow of current. There are two types of reactance, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance. Adding capacitive reactance can reduce inductive reactance and visa versa. If both reactances are the same they cancel each other out and you are left with pure resistance. The overall total opposition to the flow of alternating current is the impedance. Impedance, reactance, and resistance are all measured in ohms.

That was a very brief and simple explanation to a very long and complex subject.

When a transmitter is said to have a 50 ohm output then it will operate most efficiently when working into a load of 50 ohm impedance with no reactance (capacitive and inductive reactance are balanced.) A pure DC resistance 50 ohm load can be placed on the output of a transmitter and if the load is capable of dissipating all of the power the transmitters delivers to it then the transmitter can safely be operated with that load on it but it will not radiate an RF signal. All of the RF energy is changed to heat.

A pure resistance load placed on the output of a transmitter is known as a “dummy load”. The primary purpose of a dummy load is to prevent the radiation of signals when making tests on a transmitter.

Coax cable is said to have characteristic impedance. That just means it will work most efficiently when the load and the source are both equal to its characteristic impedance. The source can be a transmitter or a receiver and the load usually means the antenna.

The coax running from the ham shack to the antenna needs to be sealed at the point where connectors are subject to weathering. Moisture contamination is the most common cause for failure of coaxial cables.

The outer jacked of coaxial cable should be resistant to ultraviolet light because ultraviolet light can damage the jacket and allow water to enter the cable. Most coax designed for radio transmitter use are resistant to ultraviolet light.

Most hams will never have the opportunity to use “air core” coaxial cable but the question does appear in the question pool. A disadvantage of “air core” coaxial cable when compared to foam or solid dielectric types of coax is it requires special techniques to prevent water absorption.

*T7C01
What is the primary purpose of a dummy load?
A. To prevent the radiation of signals when making tests
B. To prevent over-modulation of your transmitter
C. To improve the radiation from your antenna
D. To improve the signal to noise ratio of your receiver
~~

*T7C02
Which of the following instruments can be used to determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired operating frequency?
A. A VTVM
B. An antenna analyzer
C. A “Q” meter
D. A frequency counter
~~

*T7C03
What, in general terms, is standing wave ratio (SWR)?
A. A measure of how well a load is matched to a transmission line
B. The ratio of high to low impedance in a feedline
C. The transmitter efficiency ratio
D. An indication of the quality of your station’s ground connection
~~

*T7C04
What reading on an SWR meter indicates a perfect impedance match between the antenna and the feedline?
A. 2 to 1
B. 1 to 3
C. 1 to 1
D. 10 to 1
~~

*T7C05
What is the approximate SWR value above which the protection circuits in most solid-state transmitters begin to reduce transmitter power?
A. 2 to 1
B. 1 to 2
C. 6 to 1
D. 10 to 1
~~

*T7C06
What does an SWR reading of 4:1 mean?
A. An antenna loss of 4 dB
B. A good impedance match
C. An antenna gain of 4
D. An impedance mismatch
~~

*T7C07
What happens to power lost in a feedline?
A. It increases the SWR
B. It comes back into your transmitter and could cause damage
C. It is converted into heat
D. It can cause distortion of your signal
~~

*T7C08
What instrument other than an SWR meter could you use to determine if a feedline and antenna are properly matched?
A. Voltmeter
B. Ohmmeter
C. Iambic pentameter
D. Directional wattmeter
~~

*T7C09
Which of the following is the most common cause for failure of coaxial cables?
A. Moisture contamination
B. Gamma rays
C. The velocity factor exceeds 1.0
D. Overloading
~~

*T7C10
Why should the outer jacket of coaxial cable be resistant to ultraviolet light?
A. Ultraviolet resistant jackets prevent harmonic radiation
B. Ultraviolet light can increase losses in the cable’s jacket
C. Ultraviolet and RF signals can mix together, causing interference
D. Ultraviolet light can damage the jacket and allow water to enter the cable
~~

*T7C11
What is a disadvantage of “air core” coaxial cable when compared to foam or solid dielectric types?
A. It has more loss per foot
B. It cannot be used for VHF or UHF antennas
C. It requires special techniques to prevent water absorption
D. It cannot be used at below freezing temperatures
~~

Answers:
A, B, A, C, A, D, C, D, A, D, C

—————————————————————————————————-

LESSON 5

SUBELEMENT T7 – Station equipment; common transmitter and receiver problems, antenna measurements and troubleshooting, basic repair and testing – [4 Exam Questions – 4 Groups]

Lesson 5a
T7A – Station radios; receivers, transmitters, transceivers

Figure T6 is a block diagram Single-conversion superhetrodyne receiver. It has a Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) which feeds block #1 the detector of the receiver (a detector is the stage that removes the intelligence from a radio signal.) A detector feed by a BFO which is mixed with the Intermediate Frequency (IF) makes it a product detector and the function of a product detector is to detect CW and SSB signals.

The Mixer of a superhetrodyne receiver mixes together the incoming RF signal and the local oscillator’s output to shift the incoming signal to an Intermediate Frequency. This allows the signal to be amplified by the fixed frequency IF amplifier which is much easier then having to tune each amplifier stage individually and allows the receiver to have a narrower bandwidth. Narrower band width means the receiver is able to discriminate between a desired signal and nearby undesired signals. This ability to discriminate is referred to as the selectivity of a receiver.

Figure T7 is also a superhetrodyne receiver. More specifically it is an FM superhetrodyne receiver. There are tip-offs by looking at it that it is an FM receiver but one of the test questions associated with this drawing ask if block 1 is a frequency discriminator what type of radio is it. A discriminator demodulates or removes the audio from an FM signal. So if block 1 is a frequency discriminator Figure T7 is an FM receiver.

A Transverter is a device that can change a low power transmitter/exciter frequency to another frequency band. For example a Transverter might change a 28 MHz SSB signal to 222 MHz SSB signal.

If Figure T5 represents a transceiver with block 1 being the transmitter portion and block 3 representing the receiver portion of the transceiver then block 2 would represent the Transmit-receive switch. A transmitter’s output can not be fed directly into the front end of a receiver so either the transmitter and receiver must use separate antennas or some means must be used to isolate the receiver from the transmitter’s output while transmitting. The receiver in most cases is shutoff during transmission. The Transmit-Receive (T/R) switch can accomplish both functions.

The modulator combines a speech signal and an RF carrier. The modulator puts the speech signal on the carrier in the transmitter and the detector removes the speech signal from the carrier in the receiver.

Figure T4 represents a simple CW transmitter. The Telegraph key should give it away. Every transmitter must have at least one oscillator to generate an RF signal which the driver and power amplifier can amplify and send to the antenna. Thus block 1 must represent an oscillator.

Remember when answering the questions on the technician class amateur radio test you must choose the best or the most correct answer of the four potential answers given. Question T7A09 asks which of the following devices is most useful for VHF weak-signal communications? A quarter-wave antenna is the minimum resonant antenna and has no gain while the omni-directional antenna can have some gain but it is still not the most useful for VHF weak-signal communications. The mobile VHF FM transceiver also does not fit the category. Thus the only answer left is B a Multi-mode VHF transceiver. Just accept it that is the answer.

Handheld transceivers are normally less then five watts. An RF power amplifier can be used to increase the output power to a higher level.

The ability of a receiver to hear signals is called its sensitivity. High sensitivity means the receiver can hear a very small signal. The ability of a receiver to receive low signals can be increased by installing an RF preamplifier between the antenna and the receiver.

*T7A01
What is the function of a product detector?
A. Detect phase modulated signals
B. Demodulate FM signals
C. Detect CW and SSB signals
D. Combine speech and RF signals
~~

*T7A02
What type of receiver is shown in Figure T6?
A. Direct conversion
B. Super-regenerative
C. Single-conversion superheterodyne
D. Dual-conversion superheterodyne
~~

*T7A03
What is the function of a mixer in a superheterodyne receiver?
A. To reject signals outside of the desired passband
B. To combine signals from several stations together
C. To shift the incoming signal to an intermediate frequency
D. To connect the receiver with an auxiliary device, such as a TNC
~~

*T7A04
What circuit is pictured in Figure T7, if block 1 is a frequency discriminator?
A. A double-conversion receiver
B. A regenerative receiver
C. A superheterodyne receiver
D. An FM receiver
~~

*T7A05
What is the function of block 1 if figure T4 is a simple CW transmitter?
A. Reactance modulator
B. Product detector
C. Low-pass filter
D. Oscillator
~~

*T7A06
What device takes the output of a low-powered 28 MHz SSB exciter and produces a 222 MHz output signal?
A. High-pass filter
B. Low-pass filter
C. Transverter
D. Phase converter
~~

*T7A07
If figure T5 represents a transceiver in which block 1 is the transmitter portion and block 3 is the receiver portion, what is the function of block 2?
A. A balanced modulator
B. A transmit-receive switch
C. A power amplifier
D. A high-pass filter
~~

*T7A08
Which of the following circuits combines a speech signal and an RF carrier?
A. Beat frequency oscillator
B. Discriminator
C. Modulator
D. Noise blanker
~~

*T7A09
Which of the following devices is most useful for VHF weak-signal communication?
A. A quarter-wave vertical antenna
B. A multi-mode VHF transceiver
C. An omni-directional antenna
D. A mobile VHF FM transceiver
~~

*T7A10
What device increases the low-power output from a handheld transceiver?
A. A voltage divider
B. An RF power amplifier
C. An impedance network
D. A voltage regulator
~~

*T7A11
Which of the following circuits demodulates FM signals?
A. Limiter
B. Discriminator
C. Product detector
D. Phase inverter
~~

*T7A12
Which term describes the ability of a receiver to discriminate between multiple signals?
A. Tuning rate
B. Sensitivity
C. Selectivity
D. Noise floor
~~

*T7A13
Where is an RF preamplifier installed?
A. Between the antenna and receiver
B. At the output of the transmitter’s power amplifier
C. Between a transmitter and antenna tuner
D. At the receiver’s audio output
~~

Answers:
C, C, C, D, D, C, B, C, B, B, B, C, A

Lesson 5b
T7B – Common transmitter and receiver problems; symptoms of overload and overdrive, distortion, interference, over and under modulation, RF feedback, off frequency signals; fading and noise; problems with digital communications interfaces

The term interference is used to refer to any annoyance caused by a radio transmitter or caused to a radio receiver. It might be an electric fence that causes a buzzing noise that can be heard on an amateur receiver or it might be a ham radio transmitter can be heard on a telephone. The term interference is not limited to transmitter’s output interfering with a receiver.

When an amateur radio transmitter interferes with a near by non-cordless telephone the telephone is inadvertently acting as a radio receiver. The first step to be taken with this type of interference is to install an RF filter at the phone.

When the interference is with a cordless phone, cell phone, or some other receiving device the problem may be caused by fundamental overload. Fundamental overload interference is caused by a very strong signal that overloads the receiving device.

Fundamental overload, harmonics, and spurious emissions are all potential causes of interference. Harmonics are radio signals that are multiples of the fundamental frequency (the frequency the transmitter should be sending.) Harmonics can be sent by a transmitter if it is not properly designed or properly tuned. Spurious emissions are RF signals that are not harmonics that are being generated by a transmitter when it is not properly tuned or it has an error in design.

If someone tells you that your station’s transmissions are interfering with their radio or TV reception you should make sure that your station is functioning properly and that it does not cause interference to your own television.

Some easy to install devices that may be useful in correcting a radio frequency interference problem are Snap-on ferrite chokes, Low-pass and High-pass filters, and Band-rejection and Band-pass filters.

Part 15 of the FCC rules and regulations allows for the use of unlicensed very low power transmitters on the AM and FM broadcast bands. If your neighbor’s “Part 15” device is causing harmful interference to your amateur station you should work with your neighbor to identify the offending device. Politely inform your neighbor about the rules that require him to stop using the device if it causes interference. You should also check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice.

At the present time VHF and UHF ham radio FM stations are allowed 5 KHz deviation. That means your signal can move above and below the carrier frequency by a maximum of 5 KHz when it is being modulated. The stronger the modulating signal the greater the deviation. If you are told your FM handheld or mobile transceiver is over deviating you should talk farther away from the microphone.

Noise on your vehicle’s electrical system can sometimes be transmitted along with your speech audio. This type of problem will usually be noticed by another operator who will report hearing a variable high-pitched whine on the audio from your mobile transmitter.

A report that your audio signal through a repeater is distorted or unintelligible could mean your transmitter is slightly off frequency, your batteries may be running low, or you could be in a bad location.

RF feedback in a transmitter or transceiver can cause you to receive reports of garbled, distorted, or unintelligible transmissions.

Digital communications is gaining popularity on the ham bands. When speaking of digital communications the acronym “BER” means “Bit Error Rate.”

*T7B01
What can you do if you are told your FM handheld or mobile transceiver is over deviating?
A. Talk louder into the microphone
B. Let the transceiver cool off
C. Change to a higher power level
D. Talk farther away from the microphone
~~

*T7B02
What is meant by fundamental overload in reference to a receiver?
A. Too much voltage from the power supply
B. Too much current from the power supply
C. Interference caused by very strong signals
D. Interference caused by turning the volume up too high
~~

*T7B03
Which of the following may be a cause of radio frequency interference?
A. Fundamental overload
B. Harmonics
C. Spurious emissions
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T7B04
What is the most likely cause of interference to a non-cordless telephone from a nearby transmitter?
A. Harmonics from the transmitter
B. The telephone is inadvertently acting as a radio receiver
C. Poor station grounding
D. Improper transmitter adjustment
~~

*T7B05
What is a logical first step when attempting to cure a radio frequency interference problem in a nearby telephone?
A. Install a low-pass filter at the transmitter
B. Install a high-pass filter at the transmitter
C. Install an RF filter at the telephone
D. Improve station grounding
~~

*T7B06
What should you do first if someone tells you that your station’s transmissions are interfering with their radio or TV reception?
A. Make sure that your station is functioning properly and that it does not cause interference to your own television
B. Immediately turn off your transmitter and contact the nearest FCC office for assistance
C. Tell them that your license gives you the right to transmit and nothing can be done to reduce the interference
D. Continue operating normally because your equipment cannot possibly cause any interference
~~

*T7B07
Which of the following may be useful in correcting a radio frequency interference problem?
A. Snap-on ferrite chokes
B. Low-pass and high-pass filters
C. Band-reject and band-pass filters
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T7B08
What should you do if a “Part 15” device in your neighbor’s home is causing harmful interference to your amateur station?
A. Work with your neighbor to identify the offending device
B. Politely inform your neighbor about the rules that require him to stop using the device if it causes interference
C. Check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T7B09
What could be happening if another operator reports a variable high-pitched whine on the audio from your mobile transmitter?
A. Your microphone is picking up noise from an open window
B. You have the volume on your receiver set too high
C. You need to adjust your squelch control
D. Noise on the vehicle’s electrical system is being transmitted along with your speech audio
~~

*T7B10
What might be the problem if you receive a report that your audio signal through the repeater is distorted or unintelligible?
A. Your transmitter may be slightly off frequency
B. Your batteries may be running low
C. You could be in a bad location
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T7B11
What is a symptom of RF feedback in a transmitter or transceiver?
A. Excessive SWR at the antenna connection
B. The transmitter will not stay on the desired frequency
C. Reports of garbled, distorted, or unintelligible transmissions
D. Frequent blowing of power supply fuses
~~

*T7B12
What does the acronym “BER” mean when applied to digital communications systems?
A. Baud Enhancement Recovery
B. Baud Error Removal
C. Bit Error Rate
D. Bit Exponent Resource
~~

Answers:
D, C, D, B, C, A, D, D, D, D, C, C

Lesson 5c

T7D – Basic repair and testing; soldering, use of a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter

One of the most popular instruments found in the ham shack is the multimeter. The multimeter includes a voltmeter to measure electrical potential or Electromotive force, an ammeter to measure electrical current, and an ohmmeter to measure resistance. Access to each of these different meters is usually by just turning a knob on a rotary switch.

Care must be taken when using the multimeter not to have it on the ohmmeter or on the ammeter when measuring voltage. Attempting to measure voltage when the meter is switched to measure either resistance or current can result in damaging the meter. When measuring a circuit with an ohmmeter you should be sure the circuit is not powered on and all large capacitors are drained.

Sometimes an ohmmeter will read a low resistance when first connected then as time passes the resistance will increase. When this happens it is usually an indication that a large capacitor is in the circuit.

When making measurements a volt meter is placed in parallel with the circuit being measured. Current measurements are taken by placing the ammeter in series with the circuit being measured.

A soldering iron is another instrument that might be considered for your ham shack. If you plan to do any soldering be sure to use a non-corrosive flux. Rosen core solder is the best to use for radio or electronic soldering.

A good solder connection should have a shinny silver appearance. If the surface of the connection is grainy and dull then it is exhibiting the characteristic appearance of what is known as a “cold” solder joint and while circuit may work immediately after the solder connection is made but it could be the source of problems later on down the road.

*T7D01
Which instrument would you use to measure electric potential or electromotive force?
A. An ammeter
B. A voltmeter
C. A wavemeter
D. An ohmmeter
~~

*T7D02
What is the correct way to connect a voltmeter to a circuit?
A. In series with the circuit
B. In parallel with the circuit
C. In quadrature with the circuit
D. In phase with the circuit
~~

*T7D03
How is an ammeter usually connected to a circuit?
A. In series with the circuit
B. In parallel with the circuit
C. In quadrature with the circuit
D. In phase with the circuit
~~

*T7D04
Which instrument is used to measure electric current?
A. An ohmmeter
B. A wavemeter
C. A voltmeter
D. An ammeter
~~

*T7D05
What instrument is used to measure resistance?
A. An oscilloscope
B. A spectrum analyzer
C. A noise bridge
D. An ohmmeter
~~

*T7D06
Which of the following might damage a multimeter?
A. Measuring a voltage too small for the chosen scale
B. Leaving the meter in the milliamps position overnight
C. Attempting to measure voltage when using the resistance setting
D. Not allowing it to warm up properly
~~

*T7D07
Which of the following measurements are commonly made using a multimeter?
A. SWR and RF power
B. Signal strength and noise
C. Impedance and reactance
D. Voltage and resistance
~~

*T7D08
Which of the following types of solder is best for radio and electronic use?
A. Acid-core solder
B. Silver solder
C. Rosin-core solder
D. Aluminum solder
~~

*T7D09
What is the characteristic appearance of a “cold” solder joint?
A. Dark black spots
B. A bright or shiny surface
C. A grainy or dull surface
D. A greenish tint
~~

*T7D10
What is probably happening when an ohmmeter, connected across a circuit, initially indicates a low resistance and then shows increasing resistance with time?
A. The ohmmeter is defective
B. The circuit contains a large capacitor
C. The circuit contains a large inductor
D. The circuit is a relaxation oscillator
~~

*T7D11
Which of the following precautions should be taken when measuring circuit resistance with an ohmmeter?
A. Ensure that the applied voltages are correct
B. Ensure that the circuit is not powered
C. Ensure that the circuit is grounded
D. Ensure that the circuit is operating at the correct frequency
~~

Answers:
B, B, A, D, D, C, D, C, C, B, B,

—————————————————————————————————–

LESSON 6

SUBELEMENT T8 – Modulation modes; amateur satellite operation, operating activities, non-voice communications – [4 Exam Questions – 4 Groups]

Lesson 6a
T8A – Modulation modes; bandwidth of various signals.

Intelligence (voice or data) is placed on a radio carrier by a process known as Modulation. For the purpose of this test you only need to be acquainted with three types of modulation, CW, AM, and FM. I did not mention Single Sideband (SSB) because SSB is a form of Amplitude Modulation (AM).

With CW (continuous wave) the carrier is either all the way on or all the way off and by turning the carrier on and off Morse code can be sent.

Amplitude Modulation is accomplished by changing the amplitude of the carrier by increasing and decreasing the RF signal (carrier frequency) with an audio signal. The increase and decrease is proportional to the positive and negative peaks of the AF signal. If an AM transmitter is operating properly the power output, as read on a wattmeter, should increase as the AF signal increases up to a maximum of half again the un-modulated transmitted power. The power increase is not an increase in the carrier power but in two sidebands that are formed beside the carrier.

The upper sideband is equal to the carrier frequency plus the audio frequency and the lower sideband is equal to the carrier frequency minus the audio frequency. So if a transmitter is operating on 4,000 KHz and has a 1 KHz tone modulating it then the output of the transmitter would have a carrier of 4,000 KHz, a upper sideband of 4,001 KHz, and a lower sideband of 3,998 KHz.

The carrier does not carry any actual intelligence and the upper sideband and the lower sideband both carry the same information. So if the carrier and one sideband is removed the other sideband can be sent with all the intelligence contained in a standard AM signal with all the power being transmitted in the signal with the intelligence. Because all of the power is included in the intelligence part of the signal SSB is the most common voice communications used for long-distance or weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands.

The carrier of an AM signal does act as a reference necessary for the sideband to heterodyne against to make it intelligible. The product detector reinserts the carrier by mixing the incoming SSB signal with the Beat Frequency Oscillator’s output frequency thus reproducing the audio contained in that sideband.

About all you really need to remember out of all that above for the test is that Single sideband is a form of amplitude modulation, and the type of voice modulation most often used for long-distance or weak signal contact on the VHF and UHF bands is SSB.

Frequency Modulation differs from Amplitude Modulation in that the carrier’s frequency is changed with the amplitude of the modulating signal while the power remains constant. A wattmeter attached at the output of an FM transmitter should not change with modulation. The stronger the modulating signal the further the FM carrier will shift off the center frequency. The carrier should shift evenly up and down from the center frequency.

FM is the most common type of modulation used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters.

The primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice communications is SSB has a much narrower bandwidth. The bandwidth of an amateur radio VHF FM repeater phone signal is approximately between 5 and 15 KHz. Single sideband has a bandwidth of approximately 3 KHz.

CW has the narrowest band width of all with a bandwidth of approximately 150 Hz.

Back in the early days of SSB a gentleman’s agreement was established that stations using SSB on 40 meters and frequencies below the 40 meter band would use lower sideband and stations operating with SSB on frequencies above 40 meters would use USB. Thus the most common sideband used for 10 meters, VHF, and UHF amateur radio communications is upper sideband.

During the 1980’s when home computers started to become popular packet radio also became popular on VHF amateur radio bands. The type of modulation most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmission is FM.

As a technician class amateur radio operator you will be able to run a fast-scan TV station on the 70 cm band if you desire. The typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmission on the 70 cm band is about 6 MHz.

*T8A01
Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation?
A. Spread-spectrum
B. Packet radio
C. Single sideband
D. Phase shift keying
~~

*T8A02
What type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions?
A. FM
B. SSB
C. AM
D. Spread Spectrum
~~

*T8A03
Which type of voice modulation is most often used for long-distance or weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands?
A. FM
B. AM
C. SSB
D. PM
~~

*T8A04
Which type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters?
A. AM
B. SSB
C. PSK
D. FM
~~

*T8A05
Which of the following types of emission has the narrowest bandwidth?
A. FM voice
B. SSB voice
C. CW
D. Slow-scan TV
~~

*T8A06
Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF single-sideband communications?
A. Upper sideband
B. Lower sideband
C. Suppressed sideband
D. Inverted sideband
~~

*T8A07
What is the primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions?
A. SSB signals are easier to tune
B. SSB signals are less susceptible to interference
C. SSB signals have narrower bandwidth
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8A08
What is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal?
A. 1 kHz
B. 3 kHz
C. 6 kHz
D. 15 kHz
~~

*T8A09
What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal?
A. Less than 500 Hz
B. About 150 kHz
C. Between 5 and 15 kHz
D. Between 50 and 125 kHz
~~

*T8A10
What is the typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band?
A. More than 10 MHz
B. About 6 MHz
C. About 3 MHz
D. About 1 MHz
~~

*T8A11
What is the approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal?
A. 2.4 kHz
B. 150 Hz
C. 1000 Hz
D. 15 kHz
~~

Answers:
C, A, C, D, C, A, C, B, C, B, B

Lesson 6b

T8B – Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols

Space communications offers the ham radio operators an exciting opportunity. Space communications included talking to the International Space Station and working other ham stations via satellites. Amateur operators whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station. The same holds true when operating the International Space station using 2 meter and 70 cm amateur radio band frequencies, any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license is allowed to participate it that type of operation.

Amateur radio satellites are not used to get global positioning information nor are they used to make telephone calls. An amateur radio satellite may be used to talk to amateur radio operators in other countries.

The following is true of all amateur radio communications but the question in this section deals with space communications. The maximum transmitter power that should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station is the minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact.

Available satellite tracking programs can help to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed. Amateur radio satellites have beacons or transmissions from them that contains information about a satellite. Listening for a satellite beacon may also assist in determining the time period a satellite may be used.

Some satellites operate in a digital mode. The most commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite is FM packet.

“Doppler shift” and “Spin fading” can affect communications via satellite. Any operator wanting to use amateur radio satellites should acquaint themselves with these two phenomena.

Doppler Effect happens when either or both the receiving station and the transmitting station move towards each other or away from each other. When the two stations are coming closer together the frequency of the transmitted signal will appear higher and if they are moving apart the frequency will appear lower. Most mobile do not have sufficient speed for Doppler shift to made noticeable change in a radio frequency but considering the speed of the rotation of the earth and the speed of the moving satellites space communications can Doppler shift can have a very noticeable effect on frequency of the transmitted signal. So in regards to satellite communications “Doppler shift” is an observed change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station.

Because of their height above the earth’s surface satellites greatly extend the range of line of sight communications so just as with other types of line of site communications antenna polarization can greatly effect the signal strength. Satellite antennas do not remain in a fixed angle in respect to the earth stations. “Spin fading” is caused by the rotation of the satellite and its antennas.

Some satellites orbit in a Low Earth Orbit which is abbreviated “LEO.”

A satellite operating in the “mode U/V” has an uplink in the 70 cm band (UHF) and a downlink in the 2 meter band (VHF).

*T8B01
Who may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station?
A. Only an Amateur Extra Class operator
B. A General Class licensee or higher licensee who has a satellite operator certification
C. Only an Amateur Extra Class operator who is also an AMSAT member
D. Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency.
~~

*T8B02 [97.313(a)]
How much transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station?
A. The maximum power of your transmitter
B. The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact
C. No more than half the rating of your linear amplifier
D. Never more than 1 watt
~~

*T8B03
Which of the following can be done using an amateur radio satellite?
A. Talk to amateur radio operators in other countries
B. Get global positioning information
C. Make telephone calls
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8B04
Which amateur stations may make contact with an amateur station on the International Space Station using 2 meter and 70 cm band amateur radio frequencies?
A. Only members of amateur radio clubs at NASA facilities
B. Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license
C. Only the astronaut’s family members who are hams
D. You cannot talk to the ISS on amateur radio frequencies
~~

*T8B05
What is a satellite beacon?
A. The primary transmit antenna on the satellite
B. An indicator light that that shows where to point your antenna
C. A reflective surface on the satellite
D. A transmission from a space station that contains information about a satellite
~~

*T8B06
What can be used to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed?
A. A GPS receiver
B. A field strength meter
C. A telescope
D. A satellite tracking program
~~

*T8B07
With regard to satellite communications, what is Doppler shift?
A. A change in the satellite orbit
B. A mode where the satellite receives signals on one band and transmits on another
C. An observed change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station
D. A special digital communications mode for some satellites
~~

*T8B08
What is meant by the statement that a satellite is operating in “mode U/V”?
A. The satellite uplink is in the 15 meter band and the downlink is in the 10 meter band
B. The satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band
C. The satellite operates using ultraviolet frequencies
D. The satellite frequencies are usually variable
~~

*T8B09
What causes “spin fading” when referring to satellite signals?
A. Circular polarized noise interference radiated from the sun
B. Rotation of the satellite and its antennas
C. Doppler shift of the received signal
D. Interfering signals within the satellite uplink band
~~

*T8B10
What do the initials LEO tell you about an amateur satellite?
A. The satellite battery is in Low Energy Operation mode
B. The satellite is performing a Lunar Ejection Orbit maneuver
C. The satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit
D. The satellite uses Light Emitting Optics
~~

*T8B11
What is a commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite?
A. USB AFSK
B. PSK31
C. FM Packet
D. WSJT
~~

Answers:
D, B, A, B, D, D, C, B, B, C, C

Lesson 6c

T8C – Operating activities; radio direction finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet

Sometimes fun activities can serve to prepare you for more serious projects later. Hidden transmitter hunts help hams learn how to find sources of radio interference. A directional antenna will indicate the direction from which the signal source is coming and will serve as a very useful tool in a hidden transmitter hunt. Radio direction finding is a method used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming stations.

Many hams enjoy contesting. The object of most contests is usually to try to establish as many contacts as possible with in a certain time period. When making a contact during contests do not send unnecessary information. Send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange.

Frequently, especially on VHF and UHF, when a distant contact is established the operators will pass their grid locater to designate their location. A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location.

The FCC allows for special event stations that are operated in conjunction with an activity of special significance to the amateur community to apply for a temporary “1 by 1” format (letter-number-letter) call sign.

Radio controlled models are allowed to use amateur radio bands if they are operated by licensed amateur radio operators. The maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt. In place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies a label indicating the licensee’s name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter.

A repeater directory might be used to obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP. To select a specific IRLP (Internet Radio Linking Project) node when using a portable transceiver use a keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID. (Information not needed for test but hopefully helpful to understand what I just said: A node is a point where a base station or a repeater can interface with the internet. VoIP is the abbreviation for Voice over Internet Protocol. Amateur radio operators are using VoIP to extend the range of base stations or repeaters.)

A gateway is the term used to identify an amateur radio station that is used to connect another amateur station to the internet.

*T8C01
Which of the following methods is used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming?
A. Echolocation
B. Doppler radar
C. Radio direction finding
D. Phase locking
~~

*T8C02
Which of these items would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt?
A. Calibrated SWR meter
B. A directional antenna
C. A calibrated noise bridge
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8C03
What popular operating activity involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period of time?
A. Contesting
B. Net operations
C. Public service events
D. Simulated emergency exercises
~~

*T8C04
Which of the following is good procedure when contacting another station in a radio contest?
A. Be sure to sign only the last two letters of your call if there is a pileup calling the station
B. Work the station twice to be sure that you are in his log
C. Send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8C05
What is a grid locator?
A. A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location
B. A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth and elevation
C. An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier
D. An instrument for radio direction finding
~~

*T8C06
For what purpose is a temporary “1 by 1” format (letter-number-letter) call sign assigned?
A. To designate an experimental station
B. To honor a deceased relative who was a radio amateur
C. For operations in conjunction with an activity of special significance to the amateur community
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8C07 [97.215(c)]
What is the maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models?
A. 500 milliwatts
B. 1 watt
C. 25 watts
D. 1500 watts
~~

*T8C08 [97.215(a)]
What is required in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies?
A. Voice identification must be transmitted every 10 minutes
B. Morse code ID must be sent once per hour
C. A label indicating the licensee’s name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter
D. A flag must be affixed to the transmitter antenna with the station call sign in 1 inch high letters or larger
~~

*T8C09
How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP?
A. From the FCC Rulebook
B. From your local emergency coordinator
C. From a repeater directory
D. From the local repeater frequency coordinator
~~

*T8C10
How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver?
A. Choose a specific CTCSS tone
B. Choose the correct DSC tone
C. Access the repeater autopatch
D. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID
~~

*T8C11
What name is given to an amateur radio station that is used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet?
A. A gateway
B. A repeater
C. A digipeater
D. A beacon
~~

Answers:
C, B, A, C, A, C, B, C, C, D, A

Lesson 6d

T8D – Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes, CW, packet, PSK31

Packet, PSK31, and MFSK, are all examples of digital communications method.

Automatic Position Reporting System abbreviated APRS combines GPS, amateur radio and the Internet to produce real-time position reports. The location of home stations, moving vehicles, weather, and more is displayed on a map. A Global Positioning System Receiver is normally used when sending automatic location reports via amateur radio.

Because of the wide bandwidth (6 MHz) no band below the 420 MHz (70 cm) band allows fast scan TV. The type of transmission indicated by the term NTSC (National Television System Committee) is fast scan color TV.

The question is asked, “Which of the following emission modes may be used by a Technician Class operator between 219 and 220 MHz?” The answer is B. Data. That answer is correct but read the section below from Part 97 of the FCC regulations before trying to operate in that portion of the 1.25 meter band. A lot more information is also needed before operating there see FCC Part 97.303(e).
FCC Part 97.303(e) In the 1.25 m band:
(1) Use of the 219-220 MHz segment is limited to amateur stations participating, as forwarding stations, in point-to-point fixed digital message forwarding systems, including intercity packet backbone networks. It is not available for other purposes.
PSK31 is a low-rate data transmission mode. The abbreviation PSK means Phase Shift Keying.

A packet transmission may include a check sum which permits error detection, a header which contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sent, and an automatic repeater request in case of error. Packet uses digapeters (short for digital repeater) which unlike voice repeaters use the same input frequency and output frequency.

Continuous Wave transmission, usually shortened to CW transmission, more properly should be called Interrupted Continuous Wave (ICW) because the CW operator uses International Morse code to communicate on the amateur bands. A straight key, electronic keyer, or computer keyboard are all used to sent CW signals. (Other devices used to send CW are not asked for here so they are not mentioned.)

The simplest form of error detection code is the “parity” bit format. A “parity” bit is an extra code element used to detect errors in receives data.

*T8D01
Which of the following is an example of a digital communications method?
A. Packet
B. PSK31
C. MFSK
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8D02
What does the term APRS mean?
A. Automatic Position Reporting System
B. Associated Public Radio Station
C. Auto Planning Radio Set-up
D. Advanced Polar Radio System
~~

*T8D03
Which of the following is normally used when sending automatic location reports via amateur radio?
A. A connection to the vehicle speedometer
B. A WWV receiver
C. A connection to a broadcast FM sub-carrier receiver
D. A Global Positioning System receiver
~~

*T8D04
What type of transmission is indicated by the term NTSC?
A. A Normal Transmission mode in Static Circuit
B. A special mode for earth satellite uplink
C. An analog fast scan color TV signal
D. A frame compression scheme for TV signals
~~

*T8D05
Which of the following emission modes may be used by a Technician Class operator between 219 and 220 MHz?
A. Spread spectrum
B. Data
C. SSB voice
D. Fast-scan television
~~

*T8D06
What does the abbreviation PSK mean?
A. Pulse Shift Keying
B. Phase Shift Keying
C. Packet Short Keying
D. Phased Slide Keying
~~

*T8D07
What is PSK31?
A. A high-rate data transmission mode
B. A method of reducing noise interference to FM signals
C. A method of compressing digital television signal
D. A low-rate data transmission mode
~~

*T8D08
Which of the following may be included in packet transmissions?
A. A check sum which permits error detection
B. A header which contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sent
C. Automatic repeat request in case of error
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8D09
What code is used when sending CW in the amateur bands?
A. Baudot
B. Hamming
C. International Morse
D. Gray
~~

*T8D10
Which of the following can be used to transmit CW in the amateur bands?
A. Straight Key
B. Electronic Keyer
C. Computer Keyboard
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T8D11
What is a “parity” bit?
A. A control code required for automatic position reporting
B. A timing bit used to ensure equal sharing of a frequency
C. An extra code element used to detect errors in received data
D. A “triple width” bit used to signal the end of a character
~~

Answers:
D, A, D, C, B, B, D, D, C, D, C

——————————————————————————————————————-

LESSON 7

SUBELEMENT T0 – AC power circuits, antenna installation, RF hazards – [3 Exam Questions – 3 Groups]

Lesson 7a


T0A – AC power circuits; hazardous voltages, fuses and circuit breakers, grounding, lightning protection, battery safety, electrical code compliance.

Unfortunately every year people are injured or killed from electrical shock. Most of these incidents could have been avoided with a little safety percaution. 30 volts is the commonly accepted value for the lowest voltage that can cause a dangerous electrical shock.

Electric current flowing through the body causes a health hazard by heating the tissue, disrupting the electrical functions of cells, and causing involuntary muscle contractions.

Modern electrical outlets have three wires attached to them. The black or red wire is hot, the white wire is neutral, and the green wire is the safety ground. This should not be used for an RF ground but radio equipment using three wire plugs should never have the ground wire disabled or removed.

A fuse is designed to open up if the circuit draws to much current. Thus the fuse is designed to interrupt the power in case of an overload. Fuses should be replaced only with the proper size fuse designed for that circuit. Installing a 20 ampere fuse in a circuit designed for a 5 ampere fuse has the potential of excessive current and cause a fire.

One piece of safety equipment that should always be included in home build equipment that plugs into a 120 Volt power circuit is a fuse or circuit breaker in series with the AC hot conductor.

To protect yourself against electrical shock at your station you should use three-wire cords and plugs for all AC powered equipment, connect all AC power station equipment to a common safety ground, and use a circuit protected by a ground-fault interrupter.

You still might receive an electrical shock from a stored charge in large capacitors of power supplies even when they are turned off and unplugged.

12 volt lead-acid batteries have their own set of safety rules. Never add acid to a battery. If a battery needs to be recharged and commercial power is not available the battery can be connected to a car’s battery and run the engine. Conventional 12-volt storage batteries can have explosive gas collect if they are not properly vented. Lead-acid storage batteries should not be charged or discharged too quickly because they could overheat and give off flammable gas or explode.

All antennas should have lightning protection. If you install devices for lightning protection in a coaxial cable feedline precaution should be taken to ground all of the protectors to a common plate which is in turn connected to an external ground. Do not use the safety ground for lightning protection ground.

It is good practice when installing ground wires on a tower for lightning protection to ensure that connections are short and direct.

*T0A01
Which is a commonly accepted value for the lowest voltage that can cause a dangerous electric shock?
A. 12 volts
B. 30 volts
C. 120 volts
D. 300 volts
~~

*T0A02
How does current flowing through the body cause a health hazard?
A. By heating tissue
B. It disrupts the electrical functions of cells
C. It causes involuntary muscle contractions
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A03
What is connected to the green wire in a three-wire electrical AC plug?
A. Neutral
B. Hot
C. Safety ground
D. The white wire
~~

*T0A04
What is the purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit?
A. To prevent power supply ripple from damaging a circuit
B. To interrupt power in case of overload
C. To limit current to prevent shocks
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A05
Why is it unwise to install a 20-ampere fuse in the place of a 5-ampere fuse?
A. The larger fuse would be likely to blow because it is rated for higher current
B. The power supply ripple would greatly increase
C. Excessive current could cause a fire
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A06
What is a good way to guard against electrical shock at your station?
A. Use three-wire cords and plugs for all AC powered equipment
B. Connect all AC powered station equipment to a common safety ground
C. Use a circuit protected by a ground-fault interrupter
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A07
Which of these precautions should be taken when installing devices for lightning protection in a coaxial cable feedline?
A. Include a parallel bypass switch for each protector so that it can be switched out of the circuit when running high power
B. Include a series switch in the ground line of each protector to prevent RF overload from inadvertently damaging the protector
C. Keep the ground wires from each protector separate and connected to station ground
D. Ground all of the protectors to a common plate which is in turn connected to an external ground
~~

*T0A08
What is one way to recharge a 12-volt lead-acid station battery if the commercial power is out?
A. Cool the battery in ice for several hours
B. Add acid to the battery
C. Connect the battery to a car’s battery and run the engine
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A09
What kind of hazard is presented by a conventional 12-volt storage battery?
A. It emits ozone which can be harmful to the atmosphere
B. Shock hazard due to high voltage
C. Explosive gas can collect if not properly vented
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A10
What can happen if a lead-acid storage battery is charged or discharged too quickly?
A. The battery could overheat and give off flammable gas or explode
B. The voltage can become reversed
C. The “memory effect” will reduce the capacity of the battery
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A11
Which of the following is good practice when installing ground wires on a tower for lightning protection?
A. Put a loop in the ground connection to prevent water damage to the ground system
B. Make sure that all bends in the ground wires are clean, right angle bends
C. Ensure that connections are short and direct
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0A12
What kind of hazard might exist in a power supply when it is turned off and disconnected?
A. Static electricity could damage the grounding system
B. Circulating currents inside the transformer might cause damage
C. The fuse might blow if you remove the cover
D. You might receive an electric shock from stored charge in large capacitors
~~

*T0A13
What safety equipment should always be included in home-built equipment that is powered from 120V AC power circuits?
A. A fuse or circuit breaker in series with the AC “hot” conductor
B. An AC voltmeter across the incoming power source
C. An inductor in series with the AC power source
D. A capacitor across the AC power source
~~

Answers:
B, D, C, B, C, D, D, C, C, A, C, D, A

Lesson 7b

T0B – Antenna installation; tower safety, overhead power lines

It is good practice for all members of a tower work team to wear a hard hat and safety glasses at all times when any work is being done on the tower. It is also a good precautions to put on a climbing harness and safety glasses before climbing an antenna tower. It is never safe to climb a tower without a helper or observer.

On 10/12/2009 at 2040 Eastern Time a 55 year old man, his 49 year old wife, and their 15 year old son were electrocuted while attempting to raise an antenna.  It is an important safety precaution to look for and stay clear of any overhead electrical wires when putting an antenna tower. The minimum safe distance from a power line to allow when installing an antenna is so that if the antenna falls unexpectedly, no part of comes closer then 10 feet to the power line.

Besides the danger of receiving a letter from the utility company telling you to remove it you should avoid attaching an antenna to a utility pole because the antenna could contact high-voltage power wires.

The local electrical codes establish grounding requirements for an amateur radio tower or antenna.

Separate eight-foot long ground rods for each tower leg, bonded to the tower and each other is considered to be a proper grounding method for a tower.

When grounding conductors used for lightning protection you must avoid sharp bends.

Crank-up towers are designed to be lowered when work is being done on the antenna system. This type of tower must never be climbed unless it is in the fully retracted position. If this safety rule is ignored there is a potential for the added weight of a person climbing the tower to cause the safety catch to give way and for the antenna to collapse and cut off finger and toes.

A gin pole is the tool used to lift tower sections or antennas and place them on the tower.

*T0B01
When should members of a tower work team wear a hard hat and safety glasses?
A. At all times except when climbing the tower
B. At all times except when belted firmly to the tower
C. At all times when any work is being done on the tower
D. Only when the tower exceeds 30 feet in height
~~

*T0B02
What is a good precaution to observe before climbing an antenna tower?
A. Make sure that you wear a grounded wrist strap
B. Remove all tower grounding connections
C. Put on a climbing harness and safety glasses
D. All of the these choices are correct
~~

*T0B03
Under what circumstances is it safe to climb a tower without a helper or observer?
A. When no electrical work is being performed
B. When no mechanical work is being performed
C. When the work being done is not more than 20 feet above the ground
D. Never
~~

*T0B04
Which of the following is an important safety precaution to observe when putting up an antenna tower?
A. Wear a ground strap connected to your wrist at all times
B. Insulate the base of the tower to avoid lightning strikes
C. Look for and stay clear of any overhead electrical wires
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0B05
What is the purpose of a gin pole?
A. To temporarily replace guy wires
B. To be used in place of a safety harness
C. To lift tower sections or antennas
D. To provide a temporary ground
~~

*T0B06
What is the minimum safe distance from a power line to allow when installing an antenna?
A. Half the width of your property
B. The height of the power line above ground
C. 1/2 wavelength at the operating frequency
D. So that if the antenna falls unexpectedly, no part of it can come closer than 10 feet to the power wires
~~

*T0B07
Which of the following is an important safety rule to remember when using a crank-up tower?
A. This type of tower must never be painted
B. This type of tower must never be grounded
C. This type of tower must never be climbed unless it is in the fully retracted position
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0B08
What is considered to be a proper grounding method for a tower?
A. A single four-foot ground rod, driven into the ground no more than 12 inches from the base
B. A ferrite-core RF choke connected between the tower and ground
C. Separate eight-foot long ground rods for each tower leg, bonded to the tower and each other
D. A connection between the tower base and a cold water pipe
~~

*T0B09
Why should you avoid attaching an antenna to a utility pole?
A. The antenna will not work properly because of induced voltages
B. The utility company will charge you an extra monthly fee
C. The antenna could contact high-voltage power wires
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0B10
Which of the following is true concerning grounding conductors used for lightning protection?
A. Only non-insulated wire must be used
B. Wires must be carefully routed with precise right-angle bends
C. Sharp bends must be avoided
D. Common grounds must be avoided
~~

*T0B11
Which of the following establishes grounding requirements for an amateur radio tower or antenna?
A. FCC Part 97 Rules
B. Local electrical codes
C. FAA tower lighting regulations
D. Underwriters Laboratories’ recommended practices
~~

Answers:
C, C, D, C, C, D, C, C, C, C, B

Lesson 7c
T0C – RF hazards; radiation exposure, proximity to antennas, recognized safe power levels, exposure to others

Debates have raged for decades whether or not RF radiation, in levels not high enough to start cooking the flesh, poses a serious health threat. The experts on the subject have no definitive answer and research seems to not produce any real proof of what level of RF radiation on a long term bases is safe. Even though there is no proof or agreement on the subject still there are standards set and questions on the ham radio test about those standards.

VHF and UHF radio signals are Non-ionizing radiation. So at least you do not have to worry about glowing in the dark after talking on your VHF or UHF radio.

50 watts Peak Envelope Power (PEP) at the antenna is the maximum power level that an amateur radio station may use at VHF frequencies before an RF exposure evaluation is required.

The frequency and power level of the RF field, the distance from the antenna to a person, and the radiation pattern of the antenna are all factors that affect the RF exposure of people near an amateur station antenna. The human body absorbs more RF energy at some frequencies than at others thus exposure limits vary with frequency.

If you fear you may be exposed to excessive levels of RF radiation you might relocate antennas to prevent exposure to RF radiation in excess of FCC-supplied limits.

Acceptable methods that can be used to determine that your station complies with FCC RF exposure regulations are by calculation based on FCC OET Bulletin 65, by calculation based on computer modeling, and by measurement of field strength using calibrated equipment. If you are asked this question on your test the answer is D all of the choices are correct.

You can make sure your station stays in compliance with RF safety regulations is by re-evaluating the station whenever an item of equipment is changed.

Of the following frequencies 3.5 MHz, 50 MHz, 440 MHz, and 1296 MHz 50 MHz has the lowest Maximum Permissible exposure limit.

The “duty cycle” when referring to RF exposure is the ratio of on-air time to total operating time of a transmitted signal. A pulse transmission may have a peak power of 1 KW but it is on only one tenth of a second then it is off for nine tenth of a second. When calculating the exposure power the transmitted power would be considered to be 100 watts. The “duty cycle” affects the average exposure of people to radiation thus it is one of the factors used to determine safe RF radiation exposure levels.

There is one bit of safety information that does have proof and has no question. Antennas should be kept where they are not apt to be touched by a person or pet. If a person accidentally touched your antenna while you were transmitting they might receive a painful RF burn. These RF burns can go deep and quick even when relatively low power is being used.

*T0C01
What type of radiation are VHF and UHF radio signals?
A. Gamma radiation
B. Ionizing radiation
C. Alpha radiation
D. Non-ionizing radiation
~~

*T0C02
Which of the following frequencies has the lowest Maximum Permissible Exposure limit?
A. 3.5 MHz
B. 50 MHz
C. 440 MHz
D. 1296 MHz
~~

*T0C03
What is the maximum power level that an amateur radio station may use at VHF frequencies before an RF exposure evaluation is required?
A. 1500 watts PEP transmitter output
B. 1 watt forward power
C. 50 watts PEP at the antenna
D. 50 watts PEP reflected power
~~

*T0C04
What factors affect the RF exposure of people near an amateur station antenna?
A. Frequency and power level of the RF field
B. Distance from the antenna to a person
C. Radiation pattern of the antenna
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0C05
Why do exposure limits vary with frequency?
A. Lower frequency RF fields have more energy than higher frequency fields
B. Lower frequency RF fields do not penetrate the human body
C. Higher frequency RF fields are transient in nature
D. The human body absorbs more RF energy at some frequencies than at others
~~

*T0C06
Which of the following is an acceptable method to determine that your station complies with FCC RF exposure regulations?
A. By calculation based on FCC OET Bulletin 65
B. By calculation based on computer modeling
C. By measurement of field strength using calibrated equipment
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0C07
What could happen if a person accidentally touched your antenna while you were transmitting?
A. Touching the antenna could cause television interference
B. They might receive a painful RF burn
C. They might develop radiation poisoning
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0C08
Which of the following actions might amateur operators take to prevent exposure to RF radiation in excess of FCC-supplied limits?
A. Relocate antennas
B. Relocate the transmitter
C. Increase the duty cycle
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0C09
How can you make sure your station stays in compliance with RF safety regulations?
A. By informing the FCC of any changes made in your station
B. By re-evaluating the station whenever an item of equipment is changed
C. By making sure your antennas have low SWR
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T0C10
Why is duty cycle one of the factors used to determine safe RF radiation exposure levels?
A. It affects the average exposure of people to radiation
B. It affects the peak exposure of people to radiation
C. It takes into account the antenna feedline loss
D. It takes into account the thermal effects of the final amplifier
~~

*T0C11
What is meant by “duty cycle” when referring to RF exposure?
A. The difference between lowest usable output and maximum rated output power of a transmitter
B. The difference between PEP and average power of an SSB signal
C. The ratio of on-air time to total operating time of a transmitted signal
D. The amount of time the operator spends transmitting
~~

Answers:
D, B, C, D, D, D, B, A, B, A, C

—————————————————————————————————-

LESSON 8

SUBELEMENT T4 – Amateur radio practices and station set up – [2 Exam Questions – 2 Groups]

Lesson 8a

T4A – Station setup; microphone, speaker, headphones, filters, power source, connecting a computer, RF grounding

When hooking up a new microphone to a transmitter or transceiver you need to be sure the new microphone is compatible with the unit it is being connected to. Some microphones need power to run amplifiers that are enclosed in the microphone’s case. So some transceiver microphone connecters include voltage for powering the microphone and also a push-to-talk circuit.

Sometimes when operating in a noisy area it can be difficult to hear and understand a speaker. In times like that a set of headphones can be used in place of a regular speaker.

When using an external power supply to operate a piece of communication equipment it should be a regulated power supply that means the voltage will remain constant with a varying load. It is normal for a transmitter to draw a much larger current then a receiver and if both are operated off the same power supply whether separate units or combined in a transceiver the voltage should not change significantly when going from receive to transmit and back. A regulated power supply prevents voltage fluctuations from reaching sensitive circuits.

A water filter removes unwanted elements from water and an RF filter removes unwanted elements from radio signals. High-pass filters allow radio signals above a given cutoff point to pass with little attenuation while it rejects all radio signals below the cutoff frequency. A low-pass filter is the inverse of a high-pass filter. It rejects all RF signals above a cutoff frequency while passing those below that. A band-pass filter has a lower frequency cutoff point and an upper cutoff frequency so it rejects all RF signals except those signals between the two cutoff points. A band-reject filter allows all RF signals to pass except those that fall within the lower and upper cutoff point. These filters are designed to help reduce interference.

Harmonic emissions are multiples of the fundamental frequency so they are always higher then the fundamental frequency. To reduce harmonic emissions from a transmitter a low-pass filter can be placed between the transmitter and the antenna. It is best to place it as close to the transmitter as possible.

If a nearby 2 meter transmitter overloads a TV receiver and both are operating properly the cause is most likely fundamental overload. The first step that can be taken to try to prevent the TV receiver from being affected by the RF overload is to install a band-reject filter that rejects those frequencies of 144 to 148 MHz between the TV and its antenna. The filter should be as close to the TV input as possible.

If RF current is flowing on the shield of an audio cable it can create distortion or other possible problems. Powdered iron glued together can be used to make forms or beads that when the audio cable is wrapped around these Ferrite cores will greatly increase the inductive reactance at RF frequencies. Remember inductive reactance becomes higher as the frequency is increased. So a Ferrite choke can be used to reduce RF current flowing on the shield of an audio cable without significantly affecting the audio frequencies.

Though rarely used because it is difficult to find and difficult to work with a flat strap is the best type of conductor to use for RF grounding.

Digital communications requires the interfacing of a transceiver with a computer. To run a packet radio station (a form of digital communications) a terminal node controller needs to be connected between a transceiver and the computer. The computer’s sound card is used when conducting digital communications to provide audio to the microphone input and convert received audio to digital form for the computer.

Sometimes a high-pitched whine that varies with engine speed can be heard in a mobile transceiver’s receive audio. The source of such noise is the vehicle’s alternator.

Whether I agree or disagree with the answer to a question given in the question pool does not really matter much I still need to give you the answer they want if I am to help you pass the test.

Question T4A11 asks, “Where should a mobile transceiver’s power negative connection be made?” The answer they want is, “A. At the battery or engine block ground strap.” If you follow their instructions please put a fuse in the negative lead to reduce the potential of a fire in your vehicle.

*T4A01
Which of the following is true concerning the microphone connectors on amateur transceivers?
A. All transceivers use the same microphone connector type
B. Some connectors include push-to-talk and voltages for powering the microphone
C. All transceivers using the same connector type are wired identically
D. Un-keyed connectors allow any microphone to be connected
~~

*T4A02
What could be used in place of a regular speaker to help you copy signals in a noisy area?
A. A video display
B. A low pass filter
C. A set of headphones
D. A boom microphone
~~

*T4A03
Which is a good reason to use a regulated power supply for communications equipment?
A. It prevents voltage fluctuations from reaching sensitive circuits
B. A regulated power supply has FCC approval
C. A fuse or circuit breaker regulates the power
D. Power consumption is independent of load
~~

*T4A04
Where must a filter be installed to reduce harmonic emissions?
A. Between the transmitter and the antenna
B. Between the receiver and the transmitter
C. At the station power supply
D. At the microphone
~~

*T4A05
What type of filter should be connected to a TV receiver as the first step in trying to prevent RF overload from a nearby 2 meter transmitter?
A. Low-pass filter
B. High-pass filter
C. Band-pass filter
D. Band-reject filter
~~

*T4A06
Which of the following would be connected between a transceiver and computer in a packet radio station?
A. Transmatch
B. Mixer
C. Terminal node controller
D. Antenna
~~

*T4A07
How is the computer’s sound card used when conducting digital communications using a computer?
A. The sound card communicates between the computer CPU and the video display
B. The sound card records the audio frequency for video display
C. The sound card provides audio to the microphone input and converts received audio to digital form
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T4A08
Which type of conductor is best to use for RF grounding?
A. Round stranded wire
B. Round copper-clad steel wire
C. Twisted-pair cable
D. Flat strap
~~

*T4A09
Which would you use to reduce RF current flowing on the shield of an audio cable?
A. Band-pass filter
B. Low-pass filter
C. Preamplifier
D. Ferrite choke
~~

*T4A10
What is the source of a high-pitched whine that varies with engine speed in a mobile transceiver’s receive audio?
A. The ignition system
B. The alternator
C. The electric fuel pump
D. Anti-lock braking system controllers
~~

*T4A11
Where should a mobile transceiver’s power negative connection be made?
A. At the battery or engine block ground strap
B. At the antenna mount
C. To any metal part of the vehicle
D. Through the transceiver’s mounting bracket
~~

Answers:
B, C, A, A, D, C, C, D, D, B, A

Lesson 8 b

T4B – Operating controls; tuning, use of filters, squelch, AGC, repeater offset, memory channels

The first radio most hams get today is a 2 meter handheld so they can operate through a local repeater. Repeaters receive a signal on a certain frequency called the input frequency and simultaneously transmit the audio it receives on a different frequency called the output frequency. The difference between the repeater’s receive and transmit is called the “repeater offset.”

Some modern transceivers still use a VFO knob to set the operating frequency and others use a keypad to set the operating frequency. There are some that have the ability to set the operating frequency using either the VFO knob or the keypad.

Excessive microphone gain can cause over modulation on AM, excessive deviation on FM, and flat topping on SSB all of which can result in the output signal becoming distorted.

FM receiver detectors produce a very annoying white sound when no signal is being received. The squelch control on a transceiver is used to mute the receiver’s output noise when no signal is being received. As you adjust the squelch control it will have a point at which the receiver’s white noise will disappear when rotated in one direction and reappear when rotated in the other. The proper position for the squelch control to be set is the point where the white noise just disappears. Turning the squelch control too far may result in not hearing week signals.

Most modern transceivers have a way to store your favorite frequencies or those frequencies you need to access quickly in memory channels. So a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver is store the frequency in a memory channel.

To understand a single-sideband signal the BFO which provides the insertion frequency to the product detector must be within a very few Hertz of the carrier frequency which the transmitter has removed. Though your receiving frequency, as read on the frequency readout, may read the same as the transmitting station’s transmitter frequency readout they can easily be off by a several Hertz. The Receiver Incremental Tuning (RIT) control sometimes called “clarifier” allows the receiver to be adjusted to compensate for this difference. This control is used when the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems too high or too low.

Having multiple receiver bandwidth choices on a multimode transceiver or receiver permits noise or interference reduction by selecting the bandwidth matching the mode you are using. An appropriate receiver filter selection in order to minimize noise and interference for SSB reception is 2400 Hz and for CW reception is 500 Hz.

A noise blanker, if available on a receiver, can reduce certain types of interferences such as ignition interference.

*T4B01
What may happen if a transmitter is operated with the microphone gain set too high?
A. The output power might be too high
B. The output signal might become distorted
C. The frequency might vary
D. The SWR might increase
~~

*T4B02
Which of the following can be used to enter the operating frequency on a modern transceiver?
A. The keypad or VFO knob
B. The CTCSS or DTMF encoder
C. The Automatic Frequency Control
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T4B03
What is the purpose of the squelch control on a transceiver?
A. To set the highest level of volume desired
B. To set the transmitter power level
C. To adjust the automatic gain control
D. To mute receiver output noise when no signal is being received
~~

*T4B04
What is a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver?
A. Enable the CTCSS tones
B. Store the frequency in a memory channel
C. Disable the CTCSS tones
D. Use the scan mode to select the desired frequency
~~

*T4B05
Which of the following would reduce ignition interference to a receiver?
A. Change frequency slightly
B. Decrease the squelch setting
C. Turn on the noise blanker
D. Use the RIT control
~~

*T4B06
Which of the following controls could be used if the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems too high or low?
A. The AGC or limiter
B. The bandwidth selection
C. The tone squelch
D. The receiver RIT or clarifier
~~

*T4B07
What does the term “RIT” mean?
A. Receiver Input Tone
B. Receiver Incremental Tuning
C. Rectifier Inverter Test
D. Remote Input Transmitter
~~

*T4B08
What is the advantage of having multiple receive bandwidth choices on a multimode transceiver?
A. Permits monitoring several modes at once
B. Permits noise or interference reduction by selecting a bandwidth matching the mode
C. Increases the number of frequencies that can be stored in memory
D. Increases the amount of offset between receive and transmit frequencies
~~

*T4B09
Which of the following is an appropriate receive filter to select in order to minimize noise and interference for SSB reception?
A. 500 Hz
B. 1000 Hz
C. 2400 Hz
D. 5000 Hz
~~

*T4B10
Which of the following is an appropriate receive filter to select in order to minimize noise and interference for CW reception?
A. 500 Hz
B. 1000 Hz
C. 2400 Hz
D. 5000 Hz
~~

*T4B11
Which of the following describes the common meaning of the term “repeater offset”?
A. The distance between the repeater’s transmit and receive antennas
B. The time delay before the repeater timer resets
C. The difference between the repeater’s transmit and receive frequencies
D. The maximum frequency deviation permitted on the repeater’s input signal
~~

Answers:
B, A, D, B, C, D, B, B, C, A, C,

——————————————————————————————-

LESSON 9

SUBELEMENT T2 – Operating Procedures [3 Exam Questions – 3 Groups]

Lesson 9a

T2A – Station operation; choosing an operating frequency, calling another station, test transmissions, use of minimum power, frequency use, band plans

It is amazing how many people work hard to get their amateur radio license and then they are afraid to get on the air so they never use the license for which they worked so hard. I think part of the reason for that fear is they are afraid they might say something wrong and other hams will laugh at them. I have written Lesson 9 not only to help you get your license but also to help you understand how to initiate a call or how to respond to a call. It is also designed to help you be better prepared to know where you should operate. But all the information in the world will not take the place of action. So after receiving your call pick up the mike, push the PTT button, and talk. If you are willing to take a little friendly advice if you do make a mistake you should not have anyone criticize or laugh at you.

As I said in lesson 6 today the most common first radio is a 2 meter FM handheld to use for communicating through repeaters. Repeaters receive on one frequency and instantaneously transmit what it is receiving on another. The difference between the two frequencies is known as the repeater offset. The most common offset on the 2 meter band is plus or minus 600 kHz. The common repeater offset for the 70 cm band is 5 MHz plus or minus.

The American Radio Relay League has developed a band plan for the different bands so we can use those bands more efficiently. The ARRL band plan does not conflict with the FCC regulations but it is not FCC enforced. It is a voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band.

The 70 cm band plan has established 446.000 MHz as the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations. (Simplex operation means the transmitter and receiver are working on the same frequency.)

There are certain procedural signals used in ham radio. Some of these are “over,” which means I have said what I am going to say and now it is time for you to talk, “break,” which means would you allow me to join the conversation or give a quick call to another station and shift them off frequency (this is seldom used anymore), “73,” which means best wishes, “out” which means I am finished talking and I do not expect a reply (“out” is never used with “over”), and there are many more procedural signals which you can pick up as you talk to others. Many of the procedural signals, like 73, go back to Morse code operation as their origin. “CQ”, which means I am calling any station, was originally used by telegraph operators and predates radio.

If you hear a station calling CQ in a portion of the amateur radio band you are allow to operate and your transmitter is capable of the same mode of operation being used by the station calling CQ you can respond by giving the other station’s call sign followed by your call sign (for the purpose of the test learn the aforementioned format but in real life do not forget to use the procedural signal “this is” between the other station’s call sign and yours.)

(A real life type of example not on the test: “CQ CQ CQ this is WA6OHP WA6OHP WA6OHP over” then the response if my wife, who is KI6YQ, responded to my call would be “WA6OHP this is KI6YQ over”)

Normally CQ is not used on a repeater. The common way to indicate that you are listening on a repeater is to say your call sign.

Again the test question does not the procedural signal “this is” in it but it should be used before your call sign so other operators will be clear that you are identifying your station.

An example of letting people know I am listening on a repeater would be by saying, “this is WA6OHP.” Over can be used but it is not necessary. You might also hear something like “this is WA6OHP listening” and a frequency may or may not be given after “listening.” You would respond to someone on the repeater or call someone you might think is listening to the repeater using the same format as answering a CQ.

On occasions transmitter on the air test are necessary but they should be kept as short as possible. If possible use a dummy load to test. When an amateur operator does make an on-air transmission to test equipment or antenna the station operator must properly identify the transmitting station. Station identification is required at least every ten minutes during the test and at the end.

A little side note here (not on test): A dummy load is a resistor that is designed to look like an antenna to the transmitter. The dummy load turns RF energy into heat but not 100% of the RF is turned to heat. I personally have worked stations over a mile away using a dummy load and in commercial radio work I have been able to access repeaters at a distance of over 20 miles. So be careful what you say even when using a dummy load.

In the lesson concerning space station operations the question was asked concerning the maximum power that could be used to communicate with such a station. In this lesson the question is asked, “What are the FCC rules regarding power levels used in the amateur bands,” and the answer is the same, “an amateur must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communications.” This is according to FCC regulations 97.313(a). (You don’t have to remember the regulation reference for the ham radio test.)

*T2A01
What is the most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band?
A. plus 500 kHz
B. plus or minus 600 kHz
C. minus 500 kHz
D. Only plus 600 kHz
~~

*T2A02
What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 70 cm band?
A. 146.520 MHz
B. 145.000 MHz
C. 432.100 MHz
D. 446.000 MHz
~~

*T2A03
What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band?
A. Plus or minus 5 MHz
B. Plus or minus 600 kHz
C. Minus 600 kHz
D. Plus 600 kHz
~~

*T2A04
What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station’s call sign?
A. Say “break, break” then say the station’s call sign
B. Say the station’s call sign then identify with your call sign
C. Say “CQ” three times then the other station’s call sign
D. Wait for the station to call “CQ” then answer it
~~

*T2A05
What should you transmit when responding to a call of CQ?
A. CQ followed by the other station’s call sign
B. Your call sign followed by the other station’s call sign
C. The other station’s call sign followed by your call sign
D. A signal report followed by your call sign
~~

*T2A06
What must an amateur operator do when making on-air transmissions to test equipment or antennas?
A. Properly identify the transmitting station
B. Make test transmissions only after 10:00 p.m. local time
C. Notify the FCC of the test transmission
D. State the purpose of the test during the test procedure
~~

*T2A07
Which of the following is true when making a test transmission?
A. Station identification is not required if the transmission is less than 15 seconds
B. Station identification is not required if the transmission is less than 1 watt
C. Station identification is required only if your station can be heard
D. Station identification is required at least every ten minutes during the test and at the end
~~

*T2A08
What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?
A. Call on the quarter hour
B. A new antenna is being tested (no station should answer)
C. Only the called station should transmit
D. Calling any station
~~

*T2A09
What brief statement is often used in place of “CQ” to indicate that you are listening on a repeater?
A. Say “Hello test” followed by your call sign
B. Say your call sign
C. Say the repeater call sign followed by your call sign
D. Say the letters “QSY” followed by your call sign
~~

*T2A10
What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC?
A. A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band
B. A mandated list of operating schedules
C. A list of scheduled net frequencies
D. A plan devised by a club to use a frequency band during a contest
~~

*T2A11 [97.313(a)]
What are the FCC rules regarding power levels used in the amateur bands?
A. Always use the maximum power allowed to ensure that you complete the contact
B. An amateur may use no more than 200 watts PEP to make an amateur contact
C. An amateur may use up to 1500 watts PEP on any amateur frequency
D. An amateur must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communication
~~

Answers:
B, D, A, B, C, A, D, D, B, A, D

Lesson 9b

T2B – VHF/UHF operating practices; SSB phone, FM repeater, simplex, frequency offsets, splits and shifts, CTCSS, DTMF, tone squelch, carrier squelch, phonetics

When an amateur radio station is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency it is said to be operating simplex communications or operating in simplex mode.

A few decades ago carrier squelch (squelch that un-mutes the receiver by carrier alone) was sufficient to keep the radio quiet even for repeaters when they were not being used. While most mobiles, handheld, and base stations still use simple carrier squelch the increased pressure on the amateur bands has forced most repeaters to use a sub-audible tone to open the squelch. The repeater must receive the proper tone from the transmitting station’s signal, along with the normal voice audio, to open the squelch of the receiver and allow the audio to be retransmitted. This tone squelch operation is called CTCSS (Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System).

It is possible you might try to talk through a repeater that you know should be in range of your transmitter and you know you have the proper off-set but the repeater does not respond to your signal. The reason you may not be able to access the repeater is the repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone or a different CTCSS tone then you are using. It is also possible that the repeater receiver requires audio tone burst for access, or a DCS (Digital Controlled Squelch) tone sequence is required for access.

The amplitude of the modulating signal determines the amount of deviation of an FM signal; the greater the volume the greater the deviation. When the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased the signal occupies more bandwidth.

If you receive a report that your station’s transmission is causing splatter or interference on nearby frequencies you should check your transmitter for off-frequency operation or spurious emissions. If you do not have the test equipment necessary to make these tests ask local hams if they know anyone in the area that might be able to help you. There are usually hams with the required test equipment that are willing to help you.

If your station’s transmission is unintentionally interfering with another station’s operation the proper course of action is to properly identify your transmission and move to a different frequency. Some people seem to be afraid to identify themselves in these types of situations but it is the law that we identify our station and let’s face the facts unintentional interference is one of those things that happen on today’s crowded amateur bands.

There are times for various reasons when certain letters can not be distinguished from other letters when listening on the radio. For this reason amateurs use a phonetic alphabet. It is preferable that a station use the ITU phonetic alphabet as listed on the right side of this blog but it is not required. The FCC encourages amateur stations to use a phonetic alphabet when identifying their station. The proper way to identify your station with phonetic is to use the phonetic letter in place of the regular letter. You do not say, “W as in whisky.” For example when giving my call sign phonetically I say, “This is Whisky Alpha Six Oscar Hotel Papa.”

“Q” signals are mostly used for CW and digital communications though you may occasionally hear them used with voice communications. They save time because they do not require spelling out the words. An additional benefit is Q signals are international and can be used hams that do not speak English. “Q” signals, like CQ, are older then radio because they were used by the telegraphers before radio was in use.

The question pool has only two “Q” signals. They are: QRM which means you are receiving interference from other stations and QSY which means you are changing frequency.

*T2B01
What is the term used to describe an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency?
A. Full duplex communication
B. Diplex communication
C. Simplex communication
D. Half duplex communication
~~

*T2B02
What is the term used to describe the use of a sub-audible tone transmitted with normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver?
A. Carrier squelch
B. Tone burst
C. DTMF
D. CTCSS
~~

*T2B03
Which of the following describes the muting of receiver audio controlled solely by the presence or absence of an RF signal?
A. Tone squelch
B. Carrier squelch
C. CTCSS
D. Modulated carrier
~~

*T2B04
Which of the following common problems might cause you to be able to hear but not access a repeater even when transmitting with the proper offset?
A. The repeater receiver requires audio tone burst for access
B. The repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone for access
C. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tone sequence for access
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T2B05
What determines the amount of deviation of an FM signal?
A. Both the frequency and amplitude of the modulating signal
B. The frequency of the modulating signal
C. The amplitude of the modulating signal
D. The relative phase of the modulating signal and the carrier
~~

*T2B06
What happens when the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased?
A. Its signal occupies more bandwidth
B. Its output power increases
C. Its output power and bandwidth increases
D. Asymmetric modulation occurs
~~

*T2B07
What should you do if you receive a report that your station’s transmissions are causing splatter or interference on nearby frequencies?
A. Increase transmit power
B. Change mode of transmission
C. Report the interference to the equipment manufacturer
D. Check your transmitter for off-frequency operation or spurious emissions
~~

*T2B08
What is the proper course of action if your station’s transmission unintentionally interferes with another station?
A. Rotate your antenna slightly
B. Properly identify your transmission and move to a different frequency
C. Increase power
D. Change antenna polarization
~~

*T2B09 [97.119(b)(2)]
Which of the following methods is encouraged by the FCC when identifying your station when using phone?
A. Use of a phonetic alphabet
B. Send your call sign in CW as well as voice
C. Repeat your call sign three times
D. Increase your signal to full power when identifying
~~

*T2B10
What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations?
A. QRM
B. QRN
C. QTH
D. QSB
~~

*T2B11
What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency?
A. QRU
B. QSY
C. QSL
D. QRZ
~~

Answers:
C, D, B, D, C, A, D, B, A, A, B

Lesson 9c

T2C – Public service; emergency and non-emergency operations, message traffic handling

Through the years ham radio has consistently proven to be a benefit for public service and during times of emergencies and disasters.

The FCC is the official body that establishes the rules for operating an amateur radio station as listed in Part 97 of the FCC regulations. This is true of all amateur radio communications so it is the FCC rules that applies to proper operation of your station when using amateur radio at the request of public service officials.

According to FCC rules an amateur radio operator is not allowed to provide communications on behalf of their employer. A temporary waver is allowed for amateur radio operators who are government workers to provide communications on behalf of their employers during a government sponsored disaster drill. The government agency sponsoring the event is responsible for submitting the request for temporary waver.

The only time it is legal for an amateur licensee to provide communications on behalf of their employer during a government sponsored disaster drill or exercise is when the FCC has granted a government-requested waver.

RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Services) and ARES (Amateur Radio Emergency Service) are two organizations that may provide communications during emergencies. The Radio Amateur Civil Emergency is a radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications.

When normal communications systems are not available an amateur station may use any means of radio communications at its disposal for essential communications in connection with immediate safety of human life and protection of property.

To operate during emergency situations it is important that an operator be acquainted with message handling procedures. Passing messages exactly as written, spoken or as received is usually considered to be the most important job of an amateur operator when handling emergency traffic messages.

To minimize disruptions do not transmit on the net frequency of an emergency traffic net once you have checked in until asked to do so by the net control station. If immediate attention is needed from the net control station when reporting an emergency it is common practice to begin your transmission with “Priority” or “Emergency” followed by your call sign.

The preamble in a formal traffic message is the information needed to track the message as it passes through the amateur radio traffic handling system. The term “check” when used in a formal traffic message is a reference to a count of the number of words or word equivalents in the text portion of the message.

*T2C01 [97.103(a)]
What set of rules applies to proper operation of your station when using amateur radio at the request of public service officials?
A. RACES Rules
B. ARES Rules
C. FCC Rules
D. FEMA Rules
~~

*T2C02 [97.113 and FCC Public Notice DA 09-2259]
Who must submit the request for a temporary waiver of Part 97.113 to allow amateur radio operators to provide communications on behalf of their employers during a government sponsored disaster drill?
A. Each amateur participating in the drill
B. Any employer participating in the drill
C. The local American Red Cross Chapter
D. The government agency sponsoring the event
~~

*T2C03 [97.113]
When is it legal for an amateur licensee to provide communications on behalf of their employer during a government sponsored disaster drill or exercise?
A. Whenever the employer is a not-for-profit organization
B. Whenever there is a temporary need for the employer’s business continuity plan
C. Only when the FCC has granted a government-requested waiver
D. Only when the amateur is not receiving compensation from his employer for the activity
~~

*T2C04
What do RACES and ARES have in common?
A. They represent the two largest ham clubs in the United States
B. Both organizations broadcast road and weather traffic information
C. Neither may handle emergency traffic supporting public service agencies
D. Both organizations may provide communications during emergencies
~~

*T2C05 [97.3(a)(37), 97.407 ]
What is the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service?
A. An emergency radio service organized by amateur operators
B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications
C. A radio service organized to provide communications at civic events
D. A radio service organized by amateur operators to assist non-military persons
~~

*T2C06
Which of the following is common practice during net operations to get the immediate attention of the net control station when reporting an emergency?
A. Repeat the words SOS three times followed by the call sign of the reporting station
B. Press the push-to-talk button three times
C. Begin your transmission with “Priority” or “Emergency” followed by your call sign
D. Play a pre-recorded emergency alert tone followed by your call sign
~~

*T2C07
What should you do to minimize disruptions to an emergency traffic net once you have checked in?
A. Whenever the net frequency is quiet, announce your call sign and location
B. Move 5 kHz away from the net’s frequency and use high power to ask other hams to keep clear of the net frequency
C. Do not transmit on the net frequency until asked to do so by the net control station
D. Wait until the net frequency is quiet, then ask for any emergency traffic for your area
~~

*T2C08
What is usually considered to be the most important job of an amateur operator when handling emergency traffic messages?
A. Passing messages exactly as written, spoken or as received
B. Estimating the number of people affected by the disaster
C. Communicating messages to the news media for broadcast outside the disaster area
D. Broadcasting emergency information to the general public
~~

*T2C09 [97.403]
When may an amateur station use any means of radio communications at its disposal for essential communications in connection with immediate safety of human life and protection of property?
A. Only when FEMA authorizes it by declaring an emergency
B. When normal communications systems are not available
C. Only when RACES authorizes it by declaring an emergency
D. Only when authorized by the local MARS program director
~~

*T2C10
What is the preamble in a formal traffic message?
A. The first paragraph of the message text
B. The message number
C. The priority handling indicator for the message
D. The information needed to track the message as it passes through the amateur radio traffic handling system
~~

*T2C11
What is meant by the term “check” in reference to a formal traffic message?
A. The check is a count of the number of words or word equivalents in the text portion of the message
B. The check is the value of a money order attached to the message
C. The check is a list of stations that have relayed the message
D. The check is a box on the message form that tells you the message was received
~~

Answers:
C, D, C, D, B, C, C, A, B, D, A,

—————————————————————————————————–

LESSON 10

SUBELEMENT T1 – FCC Rules, descriptions and definitions for the amateur radio service, operator and station license responsibilities – [6 Exam Questions – 6 Groups]

Lesson 10a

T1A – Amateur Radio services; purpose of the amateur service, amateur-satellite service, operator/primary station license grant, where FCC rules are codified, basis and purpose of FCC rules, meanings of basic terms used in FCC rules

According to the FCC the Amateur Radio Service is intended for persons who are interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest. Part 97 of the FCC regulations defines an amateur radio station as a station in an Amateur Radio Service consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio communications.

The FCC agency regulates and enforces the rules for amateur radio service in the United States. Part 97 is the part of the FCC rules that contain the rules and regulations governing the Amateur Radio Service.

The FCC defines harmful interference as that which seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a radio communication service operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations

According to FCC part 97 a space station is an amateur station located more than 50 km above the Earth’s surface.

Most amateur radio communications are two way communications but there are a few exceptions. Two such exceptions are telecommand which is a one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a device at a distance and telemetry which is a one-way transmission of measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument.

The Frequency Coordinator is the entity that recommends transmit/receive channels and other parameters for auxiliary and repeater stations. Amateur operators in a local or regional area whose stations are eligible to be auxiliary or repeater stations select a Frequency coordinator.

An auxiliary station transmits signals over the air from a remote receive site to a repeater for retransmission. These receivers may be on buildings in a city while the transmitter is located on a mountain several miles away. The purpose of these auxiliary stations is to improve handheld and mobile communications from locations which they might otherwise find it difficult to transmit a signal to the repeater.

*T1A01 [97.3(a)(4)]
For whom is the Amateur Radio Service intended?
A. Persons who have messages to broadcast to the public
B. Persons who need communications for the activities of their immediate family members, relatives and friends
C. Persons who need two-way communications for personal reasons
D. Persons who are interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest
~~

*T1A02 [97.1]
What agency regulates and enforces the rules for the Amateur Radio Service in the United States?
A. FEMA
B. The ITU
C. The FCC
D. Homeland Security
~~

*T1A03
Which part of the FCC rules contains the rules and regulations governing the Amateur Radio Service?
A. Part 73
B. Part 95
C. Part 90
D. Part 97
~~

*T1A04 [97.3(a)(23)]
Which of the following meets the FCC definition of harmful interference?
A. Radio transmissions that annoy users of a repeater
B. Unwanted radio transmissions that cause costly harm to radio station apparatus
C. That which seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a radio communication service operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations
D. Static from lightning storms
~~

*T1A05 [97.3(a)(40)]
What is the FCC Part 97 definition of a space station?
A. Any multi-stage satellite
B. An Earth satellite that carries one of more amateur operators
C. An amateur station located less than 25 km above the Earth’s surface
D. An amateur station located more than 50 km above the Earth’s surface
~~

*T1A06 [97.3(a)(43)]
What is the FCC Part 97 definition of telecommand?
A. An instruction bulletin issued by the FCC
B. A one-way radio transmission of measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument
C. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a device at a distance
D. An instruction from a VEC
~~

*T1A07 [97.3(a)(45)]
What is the FCC Part 97 definition of telemetry?
A. An information bulletin issued by the FCC
B. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a device at a distance
C. A one-way transmission of measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument D. An information bulletin from a VEC
~~

*T1A08 [97.3(a)(22)]
Which of the following entities recommends transmit/receive channels and other parameters for auxiliary and repeater stations?
A. Frequency Spectrum Manager
B. Frequency Coordinator
C. FCC Regional Field Office
D. International Telecommunications Union
~~

*T1A09 [97.3(a)(22)]
Who selects a Frequency Coordinator?
A. The FCC Office of Spectrum Management and Coordination Policy
B. The local chapter of the Office of National Council of Independent Frequency Coordinators
C. Amateur operators in a local or regional area whose stations are eligible to be auxiliary or repeater stations
D. FCC Regional Field Office
~~

*T1A10 [97.3(a)(5)]
What is the FCC Part 97 definition of an amateur station?
A. A station in an Amateur Radio Service consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio communications
B. A building where Amateur Radio receivers, transmitters, and RF power amplifiers are installed
C. Any radio station operated by a non-professional
D. Any radio station for hobby use
~~

*T1A11 [97.3(a)(7)]
Which of the following stations transmits signals over the air from a remote receive site to a repeater for retransmission?
A. Beacon station
B. Relay station
C. Auxiliary station
D. Message forwarding station
~~

Answers:
D, C, D, C, D, C, C, B, C, A, C,

Lesson 10b

T1B – Authorized frequencies; frequency allocations, ITU regions, emission type, restricted sub-bands, spectrum sharing, transmissions near band edges

Radio signals do not recognize national boundaries. So while local regulations of radio signals are necessary there also needs to be some from of international regulations. This regulatory agency is ITU (International Telecommunication Union) which is a United Nation agency for information and communication technology issues. North America amateur stations are located in Region 2 of the ITU regions.

There are several frequencies given in the question pool with questions about which amateur band those frequencies are in. Just remember the 6 meter band is from 50 to 54 MHz, 2 meter band is from 144 to 148 MHz, the 1.25 meter band is 222 to 225 MHz, the 70 cm band is 420 to 450 MHz, and the 23 cm band is 1240 to 1300 MHz. This is information you should know before going on the air and if you know this information you don’t have to worry about memorizing individual frequencies that might be asked on the test.

There are three bands available to technician class amateur operators that have mode-restricted sub-bands. These two bands are the 6 meter band, the 2 meter band, and the 1.25 meter band. A mode-restricted sub-band means that only the mode or modes specified are allowed to be used on that portion of the band. 50.0 to 50.1 MHz and 144.0 to 144.1 MHz are sub-bands and they are restricted to CW use only.

Amateur radio operators do not have exclusive rights to all frequencies where we are allowed to operate. According to the FCC rules there are some amateur radio frequencies that are said to be available on a secondary basis that means amateurs may not cause harmful interference to primary users.

Amateur radio transmitters should not be set and operated at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band. There can be calibration errors in the transmitter frequency displays and you should shift away far enough from the band edge to allow for the possible error. As has been discussed in earlier lessons modulation has sidebands which would extend beyond the band edge is the transmitter was set so the carrier frequency was on the band edge. Setting inside the band a little allows for transmitter frequency drift which is definite possibility as the transmitter is being used and heats up.

*T1B01 [97.3(a)(28)]
What is the ITU?
A. An agency of the United States Department of Telecommunications Management
B. A United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues
C. An independent frequency coordination agency
D. A department of the FCC
~~

*T1B02
North American amateur stations are located in which ITU region?
A. Region 1
B. Region 2
C. Region 3
D. Region 4
~~

*T1B03 [97.301(a)]
Which frequency is within the 6 meter band?
A. 49.00 MHz
B. 52.525 MHz
C. 28.50 MHz
D. 222.15 MHz
~~

*T1B04 [97.301(a)]
Which amateur band are you using when your station is transmitting on 146.52 MHz?
A. 2 meter band
B. 20 meter band
C. 14 meter band
D. 6 meter band
~~

*T1B05 [97.301(a)]
Which 70 cm frequency is authorized to a Technician Class license holder operating in ITU Region 2?
A. 53.350 MHz
B. 146.520 MHz
C. 443.350 MHz
D. 222.520 MHz
~~

*T1B06 [97.301(a)]
Which 23 cm frequency is authorized to a Technician Class operator license?
A. 2315 MHz
B. 1296 MHz
C. 3390 MHz
D. 146.52 MHz
~~

*T1B07 [97.301(a)]
What amateur band are you using if you are transmitting on 223.50 MHz?
A. 15 meter band
B. 10 meter band
C. 2 meter band
D. 1.25 meter band
~~

*T1B08 [97.303]
What do the FCC rules mean when an amateur frequency band is said to be available on a secondary basis?
A. Secondary users of a frequency have equal rights to operate
B. Amateurs are only allowed to use the frequency at night
C. Amateurs may not cause harmful interference to primary users
D. Secondary users are not allowed on amateur bands
~~

*T1B09 [97.101(a)]
Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be exactly at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band?
A. To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display
B. So that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond the band edge
C. To allow for transmitter frequency drift
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T1B10 [97.305(c)]
Which of the bands available to Technician Class operators have mode-restricted sub-bands?
A. The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 70 cm bands
B. The 2 meter and 13 cm bands
C. The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 1.25 meter bands
D. The 2 meter and 70 cm bands
~~

*T1B11 [97.305 (a)(c)]
What emission modes are permitted in the mode-restricted sub-bands at 50.0 to 50.1 MHz and 144.0 to 144.1 MHz?
A. CW only
B. CW and RTTY
C. SSB only
D. CW and SSB
~~

Answers:
B, B, B, A, C, B, D, C, D, C, A

Lesson 10c

T1C – Operator classes and station call signs; operator classes, sequential, special event, and vanity call sign systems, international communications, reciprocal operation, station license and licensee, places where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC, name and address on ULS, license term, renewal, grace period

Amateur radio call signs normally begin with one or two letters followed by a number (the prefix) and then one, two, or three letters (the suffix.) There are some countries where the call sign may begin with a number but all call signs issued in the United States of America begin with W, K, N, or A (more specifically AA to AL). Only special event stations are allowed to have a single letter in both the prefix and the suffix all other calls require a minimum of two letters in either the prefix or the suffix.

International communications are permitted by an FCC-licensed amateur station when such communications are incidental to the purpose of amateur service and remarks of personal character with the exception of any country whose administration has notified the ITU that it objects to communications from FCC licensed amateurs.

FCC-licensed amateur radio stations may transmit from any vessel or craft located in international waters and documented or registered in the United States. FCC-licensed amateur stations are not allowed to operate their station in a foreign country except when that foreign country authorizes it.

If you are operating on the 23 cm band and learn that you are interfering with a radiolocation station outside the United States you must stop operating or take steps to eliminate the harmful interference.

If a licensed amateur radio operator moves then the FCC needs to be notified of the new address, If correspondence from the FCC is returned as undeliverable because the grantee failed to provide the correct mailing address the FCC may revoke the station license or suspend the operator license.

You must have a valid amateur radio call sign before you can legally transmit on the amateur radio bands. Anyone who passes the examination requirement for their first amateur radio license may operate as soon as their name and call sign appear on the FCC’s ULS database but not before.

The normal term for an FCC-issued primary station/operator license is ten years. There is a two year grace period following the expiration of an amateur license within which the license may be renewed without having to retest. If an amateur radio license has expired but it is in the grace period the operator may NOT operate on the ham bands until the license is renewed and the FCC ULS database shows that the license has been renewed.

*T1D01 [97.111(a)(1)]
With which countries are FCC-licensed amateur stations prohibited from exchanging communications?
A. Any country whose administration has notified the ITU that it objects to such communications
B. Any country whose administration has notified the United Nations that it objects to such communications
C. Any country engaged in hostilities with another country
D. Any country in violation of the War Powers Act of 1934
~~

*T1C01 [97.3(a)(11)(iii)]
Which type of call sign has a single letter in both the prefix and suffix?
A. Vanity
B. Sequential
C. Special event
D. In-memoriam
~~

*T1C02
Which of the following is a valid US amateur radio station call sign?
A. KMA3505
B. W3ABC
C. KDKA
D. 11Q1176
~~

*T1C03 [97.117]
What types of international communications are permitted by an FCC-licensed amateur station?
A. Communications incidental to the purposes of the amateur service and remarks of a personal character
B. Communications incidental to conducting business or remarks of a personal nature
C. Only communications incidental to contest exchanges, all other communications are prohibited
D. Any communications that would be permitted on an international broadcast station
~~

*T1C04
When are you allowed to operate your amateur station in a foreign country?
A. When the foreign country authorizes it
B. When there is a mutual agreement allowing third party communications
C. When authorization permits amateur communications in a foreign language
D. When you are communicating with non-licensed individuals in another country
~~

*T1C05 [97.303(h)]
What must you do if you are operating on the 23 cm band and learn that you are interfering with a radiolocation station outside the United States?
A. Stop operating or take steps to eliminate the harmful interference
B. Nothing, because this band is allocated exclusively to the amateur service
C. Establish contact with the radiolocation station and ask them to change frequency
D. Change to CW mode, because this would not likely cause interference
~~

*T1C06 [97.5(a)(2)]
From which of the following may an FCC-licensed amateur station transmit, in addition to places where the FCC regulates communications?
A. From within any country that belongs to the International Telecommunications Union
B. From within any country that is a member of the United Nations
C. From anywhere within in ITU Regions 2 and 3
D. From any vessel or craft located in international waters and documented or registered in the United States
~~

*T1C07 [97.23]
What may result when correspondence from the FCC is returned as undeliverable because the grantee failed to provide the correct mailing address?
A. Fine or imprisonment
B. Revocation of the station license or suspension of the operator license
C. Require the licensee to be re-examined
D. A reduction of one rank in operator class
~~

*T1C08 [97.25]
What is the normal term for an FCC-issued primary station/operator license grant?
A. Five years
B. Life
C. Ten years
D. Twenty years
~~

*T1C09 [97.21(a)(b)]
What is the grace period following the expiration of an amateur license within which the license may be renewed?
A. Two years
B. Three years
C. Five years
D. Ten years
~~

*T1C10 [97.5a]
How soon may you operate a transmitter on an amateur service frequency after you pass the examination required for your first amateur radio license?
A. Immediately
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your name and call sign appear in the FCC’s ULS database
D. You must wait until you receive your license in the mail from the FCC
~~

*T1C11 [97.21(b)]
If your license has expired and is still within the allowable grace period, may you continue to operate a transmitter on amateur service frequencies?
A. No, transmitting is not allowed until the ULS database shows that the license has been renewed
B. Yes, but only if you identify using the suffix “GP”
C. Yes, but only during authorized nets
D. Yes, for up to two years
~~

Answers:
A, C, B, A, A, A, D, B, C, A, C, A

Lesson 10d

T1D – Authorized and prohibited transmissions

Normally FCC-license amateur stations are not allowed to communicate with any other radio service which includes U.S. military stations. One exception to such communication exchanges is during Armed Forces Day Communications Test when hams are allowed to exchanges messages with certain U.S. Military stations.

Transmissions of codes or ciphers designed to hide the meaning of a message being transmitted by an amateur station is prohibited with the exception of transmitting control commands to space stations or radio controlled craft.

Sometimes an amateur radio station will key up the mike while music is being played in the room and the music can be heard in the background. Such a transmission is illegal. Ham radio operators are not allowed to transmit music with one exception and that is when it is incidental to an authorized retransmission of manned spacecraft communications

If an amateur radio operator has a piece of equipment normally used in an amateur radio station available for sale or trade that operator is allowed to let other amateurs know of the availability and the price of that equipment on the ham bands if such activity is not conducted on a regular basis.

Amateur radio operators are prohibited from transmissions that contain obscene or indecent words or language.

When signals from an amateur station are from an auxiliary, repeater, or space station that station is authorized to automatically retransmit the radio signals from amateur stations.

When a paid instructor of an educational institute operates an amateur station during hours for which he is being paid the FCC considers that operator as being compensated for operating the station. Such operation is not prohibited though receiving compensation for other types of amateur radio communications is prohibited by the FCC.

The meaning of the term broadcasting in the FCC rules for amateur service is transmission intended for reception by the general public. Only where communications is directly related to the immediate safety of human life or protection of property are amateur stations authorized to transmit signals related to broadcasting, program production, or news gathering and then it is assuming no other means is available.

Communications that are conducted on a regular basis that could reasonably be furnished alternatively through other radio services or retransmission of programs that are intended for entertainment purpose from commercial radio or TV station or from public radio or TV stations are all prohibited.

Brief transmissions to make station adjustment are permitted. Stations making such transmission are required to identify themselves with their call sign.

*T1D02 [97.111(a)(5)]
On which of the following occasions may an FCC-licensed amateur station exchange messages with a U.S. military station?
A. During an Armed Forces Day Communications Test
B. During a Memorial Day Celebration
C. During an Independence Day celebration
D. During a propagation test
~~

*T1D03 [97.113(a)(4), 97.211(b), 97.217]
When is the transmission of codes or ciphers allowed to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station?
A. Only during contests
B. Only when operating mobile
C. Only when transmitting control commands to space stations or radio control craft
D. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used
~~

*T1D04 [97.113(a)(4), 97.113(e)]
What is the only time an amateur station is authorized to transmit music?
A. When incidental to an authorized retransmission of manned spacecraft communications
B. When the music produces no spurious emissions
C. When the purpose is to interfere with an illegal transmission
D. When the music is transmitted above 1280 MHz
~~

*T1D05 [97.113(a)(3)]
When may amateur radio operators use their stations to notify other amateurs of the availability of equipment for sale or trade?
A. When the equipment is normally used in an amateur station and such activity is not conducted on a regular basis
B. When the asking price is $100.00 or less
C. When the asking price is less than its appraised value
D. When the equipment is not the personal property of either the station licensee or the control operator or their close relatives
~~

*T1D06 [97.113(a)(4)]
Which of the following types of transmissions are prohibited?
A. Transmissions that contain obscene or indecent words or language
B. Transmissions to establish one-way communications
C. Transmissions to establish model aircraft control
D. Transmissions for third party communications
~~

*T1D07 [97.113(f)]
When is an amateur station authorized to automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur stations?
A. When the signals are from an auxiliary, beacon, or Earth station
B. When the signals are from an auxiliary, repeater, or space station
C. When the signals are from a beacon, repeater, or space station
D. When the signals are from an Earth, repeater, or space station
~~

*T1D08 [97.113]
When may the control operator of an amateur station receive compensation for operating the station?
A. When engaging in communications on behalf of their employer
B. When the communication is incidental to classroom instruction at an educational institution
C. When re-broadcasting weather alerts during a RACES net
D. When notifying other amateur operators of the availability for sale or trade of apparatus
~~

*T1D09 [97.113(b)]
Under which of the following circumstances are amateur stations authorized to transmit signals related to broadcasting, program production, or news gathering, assuming no other means is available?
A. Only where such communications directly relate to the immediate safety of human life or protection of property
B. Only when broadcasting communications to or from the space shuttle.
C. Only where noncommercial programming is gathered and supplied exclusively to the National Public Radio network
D. Only when using amateur repeaters linked to the Internet
~~

*T1D10 [97.3(a)(10)]
What is the meaning of the term broadcasting in the FCC rules for the amateur services?
A. Two-way transmissions by amateur stations
B. Transmission of music
C. Transmission of messages directed only to amateur operators
D. Transmissions intended for reception by the general public
~~

T1D11 [97.113(a)(5)]
Which of the following types of communications are permitted in the Amateur Radio Service?
A. Brief transmissions to make station adjustments
B. Retransmission of entertainment programming from a commercial radio or TV station
C. Retransmission of entertainment material from a public radio or TV station
D. Communications on a regular basis that could reasonably be furnished alternatively through other radio services
~~

Answers:
A, C, A, A, A, B, B, A, D, A

Lesson 10e

T1E – Control operator and control types; control operator required, eligibility, designation of control operator, privileges and duties, control point, local, automatic and remote control, location of control operator

The control operator is the person who is in control of the transmitter when the station is transmitting. All local and remote operated amateur radio stations must have a control operator when the station is operating but only when the station is transmitting. To be a control operator of an amateur station a person must have a valid amateur operator/primary station license grant that appears in the FCC database or be authorized for alien reciprocal operation.

The stations control operator must be operated in the limits of his or her license privileges so the transmitting privileges of an amateur station is determined by the class of the operator license held by the control operator. A technician class operator may never be the station control operator in an exclusive Extra Class operator segment of the amateur bands.

It is important that you carefully choose who you allow to be your station control operator because the person or persons responsible for proper operation of the station is both the control operator and the station licensee. They are equally responsible. You do have control over who acts as the control operator of your station because the station licensee is the one who must designate the control operator.

An amateur radio station control point is the location at which the control operator function is performed. The control point may be local as with a handheld radio, remote when the control operator is not at the station location but can indirectly manipulate the operating adjustments of a station, and automatic such as a repeater operation when the control operator is not present.

When a station is using automatic control it is permissible for the control operator to be at a location other than the control point.

A document such as a log book should be kept to show when the control operator is other then the station licensee because the FCC will presume the station licensee to be the control operator of an amateur station, unless documentation to the contrary is in the station records.

*T1E01 [97.7(a)]
When must an amateur station have a control operator?
A. Only when the station is transmitting
B. Only when the station is being locally controlled
C. Only when the station is being remotely controlled
D. Only when the station is being automatically controlled
~~

*T1E02 [97.7(a)]
Who is eligible to be the control operator of an amateur station?
A. Only a person holding an amateur service license from any country that belongs to the United Nations
B. Only a citizen of the United States
C. Only a person over the age of 18
D. Only a person for whom an amateur operator/primary station license grant appears in the FCC database or who is authorized for alien reciprocal operation
~~

*T1E03 [97.103(b)]
Who must designate the station control operator?
A. The station licensee
B. The FCC
C. The frequency coordinator
D. The ITU
~~

*T1E04 [97.103(b)]
What determines the transmitting privileges of an amateur station?
A. The frequency authorized by the frequency coordinator
B. The class of operator license held by the station licensee
C. The highest class of operator license held by anyone on the premises
D. The class of operator license held by the control operator
~~

T1F08 [97.119(e)]
When may a Technician Class licensee be the control operator of a station operating in an exclusive Extra Class operator segment of the amateur bands?
A. Never
B. On Armed Forces Day
C. As part of a multi-operator contest team
D. When using a club station whose trustee is an Extra Class operator licensee
~~

*T1E05 [97.3(a)(14)]
What is an amateur station control point?
A. The location of the station’s transmitting antenna
B. The location of the station transmitting apparatus
C. The location at which the control operator function is performed
D. The mailing address of the station licensee
~~

*T1E06 [97.109(d)]
Under which of the following types of control is it permissible for the control operator to be at a location other than the control point?
A. Local control
B. Automatic control
C. Remote control
D. Indirect control
~~

*T1E07 [97.103(a)]
When the control operator is not the station licensee, who is responsible for the proper operation of the station?
A. All licensed amateurs who are present at the operation
B. Only the station licensee
C. Only the control operator
D. The control operator and the station licensee are equally responsible
~~

*T1E08 [97.3(a)]
What type of control is being used for a repeater when the control operator is not present at a control point?
A. Local control
B. Remote control
C. Automatic control
D. Unattended
~~

*T1E09 [97.109(a)]
What type of control is being used when transmitting using a handheld radio?
A. Radio control
B. Unattended control
C. Automatic control
D. Local control
~~

*T1E10 [97.3]
What type of control is used when the control operator is not at the station location but can indirectly manipulate the operating adjustments of a station?
A. Local
B. Remote
C. Automatic
D. Unattended
~~

*T1E11 [97.103(a)]
Who does the FCC presume to be the control operator of an amateur station, unless documentation to the contrary is in the station records?
A. The station custodian
B. The third party participant
C. The person operating the station equipment
D. The station licensee
~~

Answers:
A, D, A, D, A, C, B, D, C, D, B, D,

Lesson 10f

T1F – Station identification and operation standards; special operations for repeaters and auxiliary stations, third party communications, club stations, station security, FCC inspection

An amateur station must identify itself by transmitting its assigned call sign at least every 10 minutes during and at the end of a contact. When operating in a phone sub-band the station identification must be in English. Languages other then English may be spoken on the ham bands and an amateur can give his call sign in a foreign language to assist the receiving station in understanding the call sign but for identification purpose the station cal sign must be in English. When a station is transmitting phone signals call sign identifications must be sent by using CW or phone emission.

If an Alaskan station with the call of KL7CC is operating in Pennsylvania the station operator might use a self-assigned indicator to let local operators know the station is mobile or portable. The station, if using phone transmission, might identify by saying KL7CC stroke W3, KL7CC slant W3, or KL7CC slash W3. (note: FCC Part 97.119c – One or more indicators may be included with the call sign. Each indicator must be separated from the call sign by the slant mark (/) or by any suitable word that denotes the slant mark. If an indicator is self-assigned, it must be included before, after, or both before and after, the call sign. No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC Rules or with any prefix assigned to another country.)

When using a self-assigned call sign indicator it must not conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC rules or with any call prefix assigned to another country.

Tactical call identifications are used at an event where the point of operation needs to be identified but it may be difficult to remember which operator is in which location. An example might be a race where there are several stations operating as Supply And Gear (SAG) vehicles while others may be operating at check points and one station is located at the Race Headquarters. The station at the Race Headquarters might identify itself on the air as “Race Headquarters.” The use of tactical calls does not negate the use of station call sign for identifying purposes. Stations must still give their FCC-assigned call sign at least every ten minutes when transmitting.

An Amateur radio repeater station simultaneously retransmits the signal of another amateur station on a different channel or channels.

If a repeater inadvertently retransmits communications that violate the FCC rules the control operator of the originating station is the one held accountable.

The FCC defines third party communications as “A message from the control operator (first party) of an amateur station to another amateur station control operator (second party) on behalf of another person (third party).” Third party traffic is legal when both stations are operating under the jurisdiction of the FCC. The FCC rules authorize the transmission of non-emergency third party communications to any station whose government permits such communications. It is not legal to transmit non-emergency third party communications to any station whose government does not permit such communications. You may be suppressed who does and who does not allow such communications so be sure to check to see if a country has a third party agreement with the United States of America before participating in third party communications.

Some amateur radio clubs have a club radio station license issued by the FCC. To qualify to receive a club station license a club must have at least 4 members.

When you accept the responsibilities of having a licensed amateur radio station you also give permission to make your station and its records available for FCC inspection. The FCC does not need a search warrant to make such inspections. So any time upon request by an FCC representative the station licensee must make the station and its records available for FCC inspection.

*T1F01
What type of identification is being used when identifying a station on the air as “Race Headquarters”?
A. Tactical call
B. Self-assigned designator
C. SSID
D. Broadcast station
~~

*T1F02 [97.119 (a)]
When using tactical identifiers, how often must your station transmit the station’s FCC-assigned call sign?
A. Never, the tactical call is sufficient
B. Once during every hour
C. Every ten minutes
D. At the end of every communication
~~

*T1F03 [97.119(a)]
When is an amateur station required to transmit its assigned call sign?
A. At the beginning of each contact, and every 10 minutes thereafter
B. At least once during each transmission
C. At least every 15 minutes during and at the end of a contact
D. At least every 10 minutes during and at the end of a contact
~~

*T1F04 [97.119(b)]
Which of the following is an acceptable language for use for station identification when operating in a phone sub-band?
A. Any language recognized by the United Nations
B. Any language recognized by the ITU
C. The English language
D. English, French, or Spanish
~~

*T1F05 [97.119(b)]
What method of call sign identification is required for a station transmitting phone signals?
A. Send the call sign followed by the indicator RPT
B. Send the call sign using CW or phone emission
C. Send the call sign followed by the indicator R
D. Send the call sign using only phone emission
~~

*T1F06 [97.119(c)]
Which of the following formats of a self-assigned indicator is acceptable when identifying using a phone transmission?
A. KL7CC stroke W3
B. KL7CC slant W3
C. KL7CC slash W3
D. All of these choices are correct
~~

*T1F07 [97.119(c)]
Which of the following restrictions apply when appending a self-assigned call sign indicator?
A. It must be more than three letters and less than five letters
B. It must be less than five letters
C. It must start with the letters AA through AL, K, N, or W and be not less than two characters or more than five characters in length
D. It must not conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC rules or with any call sign prefix assigned to another country
~~

*T1F09 [97.3(a)(39)]
What type of amateur station simultaneously retransmits the signal of another amateur station on a different channel or channels?
A. Beacon station
B. Earth station
C. Repeater station
D. Message forwarding station
~~

*T1F10 [97.205(g)]
Who is accountable should a repeater inadvertently retransmit communications that violate the FCC rules?
A. The control operator of the originating station
B. The control operator of the repeater
C. The owner of the repeater
D. Both the originating station and the repeater owner
~~

*T1F11 [97.115(a)]
To which foreign stations do the FCC rules authorize the transmission of non-emergency third party communications?
A. Any station whose government permits such communications
B. Those in ITU Region 2 only
C. Those in ITU Regions 2 and 3 only
D. Those in ITU Region 3 only
~~

*T1F12 [97.5(b)(2)]
How many persons are required to be members of a club for a club station license to be issued by the FCC?
A. At least 5
B. At least 4
C. A trustee and 2 officers
D. At least 2
~~

*T1F13 [97.103(c)]
When must the station licensee make the station and its records available for FCC inspection?
A. Any time upon request by an official observer
B. Any time upon request by an FCC representative
C. 30 days prior to renewal of the station license
D. 10 days before the first transmission
~~

Answers:
A, C, D, C, B, D, D, C, A, A, B, B

 

16 Responses to BECOME AN AMATEUR RADIO OPERATOR

  1. We’re a bunch of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your site offered us with useful information to work on. You’ve performed a formidable activity and our entire community can be thankful to you.

  2. dyson dc25 says:

    I’ll right away grasp your rss as I can’t find your email subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please let me realize so that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  3. I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am now not positive whether this put up is written via him as no one else realize such special about my difficulty. You are wonderful! Thanks!

  4. Thanks for the good writeup. It in reality was a enjoyment account it. Glance complex to more added agreeable from you! By the way, how could we keep in touch?

  5. resources says:

    I don’t know why…

  6. TOM NOURI says:

    GREAT JOB , THANKS , I ‘M GETTING READY FOR THE EXAM.

  7. you’re actually a excellent webmaster. The web site loading velocity is incredible. It kind of feels that you’re doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterwork. you’ve performed a excellent activity on this matter!

  8. Pingback: Unicef

  9. I don’t even know the way I ended up right here, however I thought this submit used to be great. I do not recognise who you are however certainly you’re going to a well-known blogger for those who aren’t already. Cheers!

  10. kvik lån says:

    Wonderful paintings! That is the kind of info that should be shared across the net. Shame on Google for now not positioning this put up higher! Come on over and talk over with my web site . Thanks =)

  11. lån online says:

    Excellent weblog here! Also your web site so much up fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link on your host? I desire my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

  12. read more says:

    Fantastic beat ! I wish to apprentice even as you amend your website, how can i subscribe for a weblog website? The account helped me a applicable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided brilliant transparent idea

  13. Hello my family member! I wish to say that this article is amazing, great written and include approximately all vital infos. I would like to peer more posts like this .

  14. Hey there, You’ve performed an incredible job. I’ll certainly digg it and personally suggest to my friends. I am sure they’ll be benefited from this web site.

  15. online lån says:

    fantastic publish, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists of this sector don’t realize this. You must continue your writing. I am sure, you’ve a great readers’ base already!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *